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ART. 2. This library is designed to supplement the private collection of books owned by teachers; it shall contain chiefly pedagogical works. It is under supervision of the school inspector of the "arrondissement" or "canton" (or school district as well as communal unit); a teacher of the district acts as librarian and treasurer.
ART. 3. The library is empowered to accept gifts and bequests in form of funds or books, but no book is to be placed on its shelves without the sanction of the
inspector of the academy" (or provincial school inspector).
ART. 4. A "founder of the library" is every one who pays an annual fee of at least 20 francs. A contributor" he who pays an annual fee of at least 5 francs. The names of founders and contributors are placed in a conspicuous place in the hall of the library.
ART. 5. All teachers of public schools who desire to make use of the library are members after the payment of 2 francs per annum.
ART. 6. The library is managed by a committee of the school inspector, the librarian, and three teachers, annually elected by the members. Their functions are performed without remuneration.
ART. 7. This committee meets at least four times a year; it determines upon the purchase and acceptation or rejection of books given to the library; it reports upon its negotiations with authors, publishers, and private persons, etc. Its accounts are submitted to discussion of the teachers' conference.
ART. 8. At the meeting of the conference which takes place in December, the annual report of the treasurer is submitted.
ART. 14. The period for which a book may be borrowed must not exceed four weeks; 5 centimes fine are to be paid for each additional day.
These libraries are generally found at the central town of a" canton," in which the meetings are held; they are placed in schoolhouses centrally located. The minister of education presents each library annually with thirty to forty books selected from the official catalogue mentioned above. Certain city governments have recognized the importance of these libraries and opened an account for them in their budgets. Thus the city authorities of Toulon pay 600 francs per year to enable the teachers' library to subscribe for the most distinguished educational periodicals. The catalogue referred to contains three divisions, namely, (1) scientific works, (2) works upon education (theory and practice, psychology and history of education), and (3) reference books, to which division belong all official reports on education, home and foreign.
A desirable extension of the usefulness of these libraries is found in the socalled pedagogical reading circles. In some cities the authorities have reserved a room in the city hall for the teachers' libraries, which serves also for meetings of the "library society" or "reading circle." In Luneville a circle was organized in 1881 by the teachers then assembled in annual convention. The name adopted was "Pedagogical and Literary Circle of Luneville." It had the nucleus of a library, and now added a school museum. The annual dues were fixed at 2 francs. The teachers serve voluntarily as librarians and custodians. One of them is always found at specially designated days and hours in the hall of the circle. The city council defrays the expenses for furnishing, heating, and lighting the hall, and, besides, contributes to the institution a sum of money for the express purpose of subscribing for the six best educational journals of France. All substitute teachers and such as are not definitely employed are exempted from paying fees, but must, when needed, render aid to the librarian and custodian. The library consisted in 1889 of 1,308 volumes; the number of books borrowed and taken home was 245. The museum had 875 articles. The first Saturday evening of every month is devoted to lectures on pedagogical subjects which are in close connection with the practical work in school. For young men preparing for the teachers'examination special aid is offered in lessons and lectures. The first list of pedagogical libraries of France was published in 1879. In that year France had 926 such libraries, with 113,997 volumes. In 1880 the number was 2,068, with 361.898 volumes, and in 1888 the number had reached 2,683, with 895,367 volumes. The reports of the minister of education, however, reveal a surprising fact, namely, that the number of books borrowed is comparatively very small; in some provinces it sank to 5 in a year. In most of the others it varied between 20 and 40 per year, and only a few of these libraries are frequently used. The general impression gained from the official reports is that the present condition of the pedagogical libraries is not a satisfactory one; progress is shown only in isolated places. The causes may be found in circumstances of material nature, partly in the quite remarkable indifference on the part of the teachers. Lately several attempts at improving the conditions of these libraries have been made; reforms were proposed from different sides. Thus, for instance, it
has been suggested to centralize the many cantonal (or district) libraries and establish departmental (or provincial) ones; others proposed a partial change by combining all small libraries of one school inspectorate to one good-sized one. Still another project was promulgated in 1874. A benevolent gentleman offered to give 30,000 francs in case the libraries were established according to the following plan: Each inspectorate should establish a central library containing all the more valuable books and books of reference, while the small local district libraries be kept intact. In these small libraries should be examined all the educational works published, and the approved ones be placed in the central library. But this plan found no approval, and the Government began to take other measures which found much praise in Europe, i. e., it laid the foundation of good private libraries by offering and presenting books to individual teachers.
A circular letter of the minister of education of April 3, 1882, reads as follows: "In order that the teachers' normal schools should exercise an abiding influence upon the teachers, I am willing to present every graduate of a normal school who enters this year upon the profession a number of books selected from among those which appeared to him indispensable during his time of study. This small collection of books which he takes with him shall awaken and preserve in him a love for his profession; shall console and constantly aid him, even though fate may send him to the remotest corner of the country. If the young man adds to these books others, such as he can borrow from the pedagogical library of his schcol district and canton, as well as by mail from the Musée pedagogique' in Paris, he will never feel lonely, forsaken, and condemned to inactivity. He will be enabled to continue his studies and increase his knowledge. In order that this object may be secured without delay I empower the faculties of the normal schools to provide each graduate with a number of educational books that each may select himself, but the sum total of which must not exceed 70 francs for one teacher." It is to be regretted that subsequent legislative bodies did not provide for the requisite appropriation to carry out this plan, but the teachers in France hope that another year will see the plan of the minister revived and adopted by the Chamber of Deputies.
It is generally acknowledged as the best policy to leave the cantonal libraries intact, but to improve their management (1) by allowing the teachers the selection of books to be purchased, (2) by giving these libraries the franking privilege (through the mail), (3) by paying the librarians a salary, and (4) by interesting all the teachers through making them pay a compulsory annual fee. This last proposition has, however, found violent opposition, since its execution would violate the letter and spirit of the law which created these libraries. It is said that a reduction of the membership fee from 2 francs to 1 franc would be a wiser step.
The severest criticism these libraries have found is to the effect that they are exclusively pedagogical, i. e., contain nothing except professional works, while "the truest pedagogical library is any well-stocked library," says one departmental report, which suggests the acquisition of other than purely professional books. This consideration seems to have prevailed, for the catalogue published in 1888 contains a number of titles of books of fiction and others. It is supposed that teachers who have performed a hard day's work in the schoolroom are not inclined to subject themselves to difficult scientific study. And in connection with this the normal schools are severely criticised for failing to awaken a love for reading in their pupils. "The study of literature suffers from the exclusive attention paid to professional studies in these schools." Some inspectors have succeeded in gaining a kind of control over the reading of their teachers by requiring a report of the names of books they have read, a statement as to their contents, and some criticisms, which are discussed in their regular monthly conferences.
In general the statistical data given show that the pedagogical libraries in France have made progress during the last ten years, and the interest exhibited by local authorities in their establishment and preservation is an encouraging sign. The authorities hope that the present indifference of teachers and school officials will slowly give way to greater professional activity. To this end the central departmental and cantonal authorities are joining hands. (After L. Fleischer.)
12. MANUAL TRAINING.
Germany.-Manual training at Leipsic. So much attention has been drawn to the Lloyd Seminary at Nääs that the similar institution which is carried on in the old Thomas School at Leipsic, under the direction of Dr. W. Gotze, hardly gets the attention which it deserves. But to those who wish to pursue their
manual training studies, to those who can readily follow the lectures on the subject given once a week at the university at Leipsic, and to those again who, besides studying manual training, wish to perfect themselves in German and to see German life a little more from the inside than is possible in ordinary traveling to all such we venture to think the Leipsic institution will prove more and more attractive every year. To a doctrinaire of the Nääs school Leipsic yields an admirable corrective. A list of subjects of the lectures given last August will suggest the bill of fare provided for those who have a good knowledge of German. "Herbart's Relation to the Manual Training Movement," "The History of Chip-Carving." and "Voices from the Middle Ages and from the Eighteenth Century in Aid of Our Contention," were among the subjects teat d of last August. But even more stimulating were the addresses given by Herr von Schenckdorff and Dr. Gotze on their return from the Strasburg conference at the end of the month. Those who are less proficient in German may acquaint themselves with the history and objects of manual training in Germany by borrowing from the library of the institute some interesting documents by Dr. Gotze which have been translated into English, and they may in the mean time increase their knowledge of German by assiduous attendance at the excellent city theater, at which the cost of students' seats, nuinbered and reserved, is not more than 7d. a night. Prominence is given to these particulars respecting the theoretical side of manual instruction, because it is the part which is most frequently neglected, especially in England, and because, too, contrary to the common opinion, it is hopeless to expect any useful results from manual training unless teachers attend as carefully to theory as they do to practice. With regard to the five subjects in which practical instruetion is given at Leipsic-carpentry, light metal work, chip-carving, cardboard, and (for the first time this year) gardening-full particulars will be found in the prospectus. Any additional information will be readily given by Dr. Gotze, whose address is 19 Kaiser Wilhelm strasse. (Lond. Ed. Times).
The German Society for Manual Training has made extensive statistical inquiries concerning the present status and extent of manual training in Germany. The results of these inquiries are published by Mr. Sontag in pamphlet form. We cull the following items:
The greatest number of manual training schools in Germany are found in the Kingdom of Saxony, namely, 42: then follows the province of Silesia with 17; then the Thüringian principalities with 16, the Free Cities with 13, the province of Saxony with 10, the provinces of Hanover and Brandenburg with 9 each, Alsace-Lorraine with 7, and Bavaria with 6. Besides, there are over 50 of such schools in other parts of Germany; Rhenish Prussia has 5. The sum total is 186, situated in 120 cities and towns. The following parts of Germany have no manual training schools at all: Anhalt, Brunswick, Mecklenburg, Lippe, Hessia, Oldenburg, and Waldeck; neither the provinces of Pommerania and Westphalia. From this it is seen that most manual training schools are found-in and around industrial centers. Schools for boys' hand work have been established in mountainous regions, where they are designed to aid the people to overcome the miserable industrial conditions under which they are suffering. In agricultural regions, on the contrary, the need of establishing such schools has not been felt.
Of the 186 manual training shops enumerated only a few in Silesia and Saxony have industrial purposes. The majority serve educational purposes. Sixtyseven of these, in 62 cities, were independent: 107 of them stood in some relation with the public or private institutions. Thus, for instance, 12 normal schools have introduced manual training (6 alone in Saxony). All these normal schools work according to their own plans, and harmony between the different schools in course of study and action is not found. Fifteen orphan asylums have introduced manual training, 12 private and public schools train in the use of tools, also 55 Knabenhorte asylums for boys after school hours. It is remarkable that of the institutions for abnormal pupils 24 have adopted manual training, namely, 10 reform schools, 2 schools for idiots, 5 blind asylums, and 7 asylums for deafmutes. That for the pupils of such institutions training in hand work is an essential requirement of success is seen from all the reports received from these institutions.
The establishment of manual training shops began about 1879. At this time manual training received a notable impetus in Germany by the vigorous action of Capt. Clauson von Kaas, who, in 1880, in Emden, and later in Dresden, trained a number of teachers in this new branch of study. Since that time several factors have been active as founders of manual training schools. Societies and private persons in some places, in others communal and state officials, are inter
ested in promoting manual training. While in the year 1884 the number of shops was about 50, in 1888 the number had nearly quadrupled; in like manner the number of pupils increased from 2,080 in 1884 to 5,678 in 1883. The majority of these pupils, namely, 67 per cent, were less than 14 years of age, while 24 per cent were pupils of intermediate, high, and normal schools.
Concerning the subjects taught in these shops the report says that pasteboard work, wood-carving, and joiner work are everywhere taught first. These seem to be the chief occupations. In 1888 77 manual training shops had taken up pasteboard work, 61 wood-carving, 60 joiner work. Of the pupils 43 per cent were occupied with pasteboard work, 32 per cent with wood-carving, 31 per cent with joiner work. Seven of these schools teach forging, molding, and other light metal work; in three of them modeling is taught. Here and there are found painting on wood, scroll-saw work in wood and metal, turning, canebraiding, brush and broom making, basket-braiding, straw-mat braiding, filletnetting as branches of the course. These latter branches are offered only in places where the school is intended to aid the home industry.
It is pleasing to notice that most of the schools follow courses which are founded upon pedagogical principles; the models are made by teachers themselves or copied from the well-known Leipsic models.
Instruction in these manual training schools is given by 208 professional teachers and 48 artisans. The question whether artisans or teachers should be employed in manual training schools has been successfully solved by experience. Since 1880 the ratios of artisans and teachers in manual training schools have been:
Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
The number of professional teachers instructing in the workshops has gradually increased to 81 per cent, while the number of teaching artisans has decreased accordingly. In training shops maintained solely for educational purposes professional teachers only are employed. Several reports state that in schools where artisans are still employed teachers are greatly to be preferred. In schools, however, that are intended for industrial purposes it is found that skilled artisans are preferable, because they have an eye towards practical utility such as professional teachers are not likely to have. Special courses for teachers in the Normal College of the German Society for Manual Training have been very successful in supplying schools with teachers preparing to teach manual work. Since the year 1880 about 1,000 persons have gone through a course of study in that school, which is situated in Leipsic.
The German teachers have been repeatedly charged with indifference toward the cause of manual training. This charge is only too true, but in a measure this indifference has its cause in stolid opposition to manual training. Manual training claims the assistance of the teachers, and very essentially changes and modifies the time-honored limits of a teacher's activity. Manual training has nothing to fear from opposition; on the contrary such opposition as it finds among the teachers proves to be a benefit. This is partly proved by the statistical data before mentioned. Any one who introduces manual training into his school is obliged to sacrifice time, and energy, and even means. Yet, wherever it has been introduced the initiatory steps were taken by schoolmen. Nine of the twelve independent workshops have been established by educators.
As far as the time of instruction is concerned most manual-training schools admit twice a year, in the spring and fall. The school is better attended during the winter than the summer semester. In Berlin, Posen, and Halle, vacation courses are offered. Generally 2 hours per day are devolved to hand work in the shops; in a few places 1 to 1 hours; in others 2 or 3 hours per day are set aside for it. The number of pupils in a class for pasteboard work is from 12 to 20 for wood carving, 10-24: in joiner work from 12-16. Tuition fee is charged in almost all schools. Very few offer gratuitous instruction. In some places the fee has to be paid in advance, in others a monthly fee is charged. The fee varies between half a mark and 10 marks per month (124 cents to $2.50). The The average fee is between 1 and 2 marks (25 and 50 cents).
A number of manual-training teachers teach without special salary; others are satisfied with the small sum remaining after material, rent, and gas are paid for. Fixed salaries to teachers are paid here and there, and 1 to 2 marks per hour is about the usual price paid. The annual salaries range from 75 marks ($19) to 105 marks ($26).
The sums expended for the establishment and maintenance of manual-training shops are not very large if measured with an American standard. During the year 1888 the sum total raised and used for this purpose is estimated to have amounted to 50,000 marks, or $12,500. This insignificant sum was raised by school authorities, societies, private persons, subscriptions, tuition fees, and bequests. Pitiably small as the sum may seem to us, we must bear in mind that a mark goes as far in Germany as a dollar does in America; but even that would not come up to the sums spent in this country. Manual training has assumed enormous proportions in the United States, where entire city-school systems have adopted it. (After Paedagogium.)
Medical supervision of the schools in Paris.-The present institution of medical supervision of the schools in Paris does not date further back than 1884, although previous to that year the schools were not entirely without supervision by physicians. The law of 1833 (June 28) had charged the school committees of the respective towns and cities with the care of keeping the schoolhouses clean, while a royal ordinance of 1837 (December 22) made it a special duty of the female supervisors of maternal schools (kindergartens) to watch over the health of the little children in the infant asylums.
For the city of Paris separate governmental decrees had been issued, while the two decrees mentioned had reference to all the schools of France. The decrees of 1842 (December 20) and 1843 (May 19) ordered that every public boys' and girls' school should be visited by a physician who was to inspect the localities and the general health of the school children. For private schools and maternal schools similar regulations were issued. These school physicians of public institutions and the lady inspectors of maternal schools were appointed by the "prefect" of the department selected from nominations made by the mayor.
However praiseworthy this arrangement was, it had a great drawback. In the annual budgets of the communities no provision was made for paying these physicians, hence an appeal to the generosity of the medical fraternity was necessary. Many offered their services and acted gratuitously for many years.
In January, 1878, Messrs. Lauth and Harant, members of the general council of the Seine department, moved a reorganization of the medical service in school. Their endeavors were not without speedy success, for during the session of April 23, 1879, the council voted in favor of paying for medical supervision of the schools during the last six months of that year. The sum appropriated was 34,200 francs. New regulations issued by the prefect determined certain mooted questions and defined the duties of the physicians. The Seine department was divided into 114 medical districts, of which 85 were within the city of Paris. Each district contained between 20 and 25 schoolrooms.
The medical inspectors, who had to be graduates of well reputed schools of medicine, were nominated by the mayors of the different arrondissements (wards), and appointed by the prefect of the department.
Their term of office was three years, at an annual salary of 600 francs. They were obliged to visit the schools of their district at least twice a month, carefully inspect the localities, and remove any children found to be suffering from contagious or infectious disease. They even were empowered to order a school closed in time of epidemics.
During the absence of the physician, the principals of the schools had to watch over the health of the pupils in their respective buildings. In order to assist them in this, the authorities provided them with instructions issued by the supreme sanitary council of Paris, according to which they could detect the symptons of contagious and infectious diseases. In Paris the medical service in school stood under the immediate supervision of the mayor of the "arrondissement," while in the surburbs and the country the head of the "canton" watched over the faithful discharge of duty on the part of the physician.
Up to the year 1882 the entire expense for the new institution was defrayed by the "Department," but in that year the communal budget of Paris contained the item of 53,000 francs for salaries of school physicians.