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val of 13 years, and at once began visiting schools of all grades, from the kindergarten to the high school, having a twofold purpose in view. In the first place, I was desirous to familiarize myself with the main features of the organization and administration of the schools and, secondly, I wished to obtain an idea of the character and extent of the physical training which had been introduced into the schools, in accordance with the vote of the school committee, on June 24, 1890.
Toward the end of February I addressed a circular letter to the principals of schools, in response to which I received a statistical return, covering the month of January, 1891, regarding all high, grammar, and primary schools.
The returns showed that upwards of 1,100 teachers were giving gymnastic instruction, for some 17 minutes daily, to their classes. In some schools the old memorized gymnastic drill had been continued, pending the appointment of a director of physical training; but the greater number of teachers, in the grammar and primary schools were engaged in an honest attempt to teach the Ling free standing movements. Counting the masters of the 55 grammar schools, 1,120 teachers, in the grammar districts, were returned as teaching gymnastics, of which number, below the grade of master, 844 were teaching Ling gymnastics and 221 teaching what may be termed not inaptly "mixed gymnastics." The best results were observed in those schools whose masters had attended the tachers' classes of the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics and had taken particular pains, besides, to lead, assist, and criticise their teachers in the work of class instruction in gymnastics. In certain schools extremely creditable results had been attained, especially in those where the teachers had formed themselves into classes and hired special instructors in the Ling system to give them normal lessons.
It gives me pleasure to say that I have been much surprised and gratified by the interest, zeal, and intelligence shown by the teachers of the grammar and primary schools, as a body, in the subject of physical training.
Since April 1, 1891, I have availed myself of the invaluable services of Mr. Hartvig Nissen, who was elected assitant instructor in physical training, March 10, 1891. Mr. Nissen has assisted me in visiting and inspecting schools and has conducted normal classes in the Ling gymnastics for the teachers of the grammar and primary schools. Two inspections of the grammar schools have been made since they opened on September 9. On the basis afforded by the first inspection, 8 were rated "excellent," 18" good," 17 "passable," and 12" poor." The result of the second inspection is as follows: 8 were marked "excellent," 20 “good,” 20 “passable,” and 7 “poor.”
I propose to continue such classes until the class work in the schools shall show that the average teacher has grasped the main principles of the Ling school gymnastics and is able to carry them into effect.
Early in 1890 I was engaged by Mrs. Mary Hemenway to deliver a course of lectures on physical training before the students of the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics. These lectures were given in the Oid South Meeting-House, at noon, on six Saturdays, viz, March 21 and 28, April 18 and 25, and May 2 and 9. Through the kindness of Mrs. Hemenway the lectures in question were thrown open to all teachers of the Boston public schools. I was thus enabled to meet so many of the teachers as cared to consider the salient facts regarding the origin, development, and characteristic features of the principal types and systems of physical training.
I also addressed the masters of the grammar schools upon "Physical training in the Boston schools" at the May meeting of the Masters' Association.
In accordance with an order of the school committee, which was passed May 12, Mr. Nissen gave special normal instruction to the teachers of the primary and grammar schools of some forty districts during May and June. This form of instruction has been continued, though in a less formal way in all grammar districts, from the opening of the schools in September last until now. In accordance with an order passed by the school committee on December 8, arrangements have been made to provide for the normal instruction, twice a month, in the Ling free standing movements, of all teachers of the primary and grammar schools, not especially excused by the committee on physical training, during the remainder of the present school year.
DISCUSSIONS OF EDUCATIONAL QUESTIONS.
I.-Civic instruction. II.-Compulsory attendance. III.-Courses of study-Adjustment of school programmes. IV.-Education. V.-Higher education. VI.-Kindergartens. VII.-Manual and industrial training. VIII.— Methods of instruction. IX.-Physical training. X.-Private and parochial schools. XI.—Public schools. XII.-Reading and literature. XIII.-Religious and moral training. XIV.-School management and discipline. XV.-Secondary education. XVI.-Teachers. XVII.-Text-books.
I. CIVIC INSTRUCTION.
The truer meaning of patriotism.-Hon. William A. Poste, New York civil-service commissioner: Patriotism, as an impulse, like all the enthusiasms, counts for nothing in the every-day life unless its deep and truer meaning is fully perceived. The ideal of citizenship can not rise higher than the moral nature. The flag may wave from every school-house, and the boy may know on how many battle fields it led the way to glory, but unless behind all is the thought that a man is as much bounden to his country to vote thoughtfully as to fight for the flag if the country calls, that flag to him is indeed but striped bunting. Unless he can understand that for a man to sell his vote * * is moral treason, what boots it to him that in every age men have gone to their deaths for truth, for fatherland, and that their babes might breathe free air.
Beliefs that are individual and inherent.-Hon. William A. Poste: The beliefs that men live by and die for are not to be drilled into the boy like the rule for long division. The genesis and growth and persistence of political opinions are often beyond analysis and, to the theorist, unscientific, illogical. It is well that this is so. These convictions are matters very largely of personal dispositions, intangible but persistent as the traits of race. If they are individual and inherent, they are of more positive personal force throughout the multitude than any dogma nurtured in the schools. Let the boy come to his political faith as Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson, and Abraham Lincoln came to the principles that made and saved the State. It is out of the clashing of such individualisms, spear against shield, that the will of the people works. Its voice is heard above them. The voice is not always the voice of God, but in times of trial, in hours when great and solemn questions are asked and answered, the thunder of Sinai is in it.
"Patriots' Day" proposed.-Superintendent J. R. Preston, Mississippi: One school day should be set apart every year as Patriots' Day. Planting trees and flowers to adorn school premises-an engaging practice now in vogue in most of the States-is undoubtedly a potent means of establishing attractive associations and of endearing the school, and through it the State, to the hearts of future citizens. If this be a laudable practice, how much more worthy and sig nificant to utilize a day to implant in their natures the seeds of genuine patriotism. Just as ground is prepared to nourish tree and flower, so may hearts and intellects be quickened to cherish high resolve.
So let us have Patriots' Day dedicated as a national holiday, on which to focalize the light and grandeur of our country and photograph its glory upon the hearts of the children. Let parents and the community at large congregate at the school, and in song and recitation and patriotic speeches revive their love of country and deepen their spirit of fidelity to its principles.
The highest patriotism.-W. D. Atkinson: True patriotism is the endeavor to elevate my country's standard of honor up to that which is right and true, and I should love my country for that in her which is devoted to righteousness. I should love the truth and righteousness which God has given us, and seek to bring my country up to it. I am not to make patriotism, therefore, the end, but rather the means by which I may hope to bring the nation to a love of righteousness. I do not think the observance of any patriots' day will ever attain that result. The time wasted or spent in that could be better spent in educating the young men in these moral truths and principles which will make the citizens seek that which will be for his country's highest good; hence it is not patriotism itself we are striving to attain, but it is love of truth, of right, and righteousness. Patriotism is nothing more than this; that is the highest patriotism.
A great difference.-Principal George M. Grant, Queen's University (Ontario): The school should teach patriotism, and let us not forget that there is as great a difference between patriotism and the blatant, arrogant spread-eagleism— which in Europe is called Chauvinism-as there is between enthusiasm and fanaticism. The one is healthy and full of generous inspirations and the other unhealthy and the destroyer of true patriotism and morality. The one teaches us to love our own land and race first, because it is ours, and we believe that it has done and that it promises to do most for man and for that which is best in man, especially for the good old cause of liberty, peace, and righteousness. The other teaches us to hate men for the love of God or the love of country.
II. COMPULSORY ATTENDANCE.
Compulsory education in Ontario.-Hon. George W. Ross, minister of education: By an act of last session the police commissioners of every city, town, and incorporated village are required to appoint truant officers. This act came into effect on the 1st of this month [July, 1891]. It may take a year or two to acquaint the people of the province with its requirements. It may also take some time to train the truant officers to the proper discharge of their duties. As the schools of Ontario have been free for over twenty years, there is no doubt the people will gladly accept their natural complement, compulsory education, as indispensable.
The most effective agency for securing school attendance. Report of Committee of National Council of Education, D. L. Kiehle, chairman: Everyone, and very certainly every educator, will place the first stress upon the natural, self-commanding, and assimilating power of a public free-school system, and will agree that this should be perfected to meet every demand of the highest standard of physical, intellectual, and moral training; that it should be protected from every corrupting influence and every political or religious entanglement, and that its true value by every means should be impressed upon the public mind.
Next, as to the necessity and practicability of applying the compulsory feature for the general enforcement of attendance, there will be various opinions, according to points and circumstances of observation.
In some large cities, and especially in manufacturing districts where children are at the mercy of soulless corporations, the State has successfully enforced a compulsory law; but in the State at large, and especially in agricultural districts, your committee are not aware of any enforcement of a compulsory law, which proves that it can be made an effective part of our educational system.
Our system ought to be extended by educational methods.-Superintendent D. L. Kiehle (Minnesota): The Government ought to look to the limitation and improvement of its citizenship, and we as educators ought to put more stress upon the improvement and extension of our educational system by educational methods. Our system ought to be perfected. We ought to do more for our young people. We ought to make our system less objectionable. We ought to introduce the moral element as perfectly as possible, to meet the demands of that class of people who have been accustomed to associate religious instruction with secular instruction. Now, coming to the legislative part, theoretically your committee has no doubt that it is perfectly legitimate that men be required to do these things; but practically it questions whether it is not better to enforce the compulsory law in our towns and cities moderately, watching the development of circumstances, and not relying on the law to effect very much at present in agricultural districts or over the country at large, but at all times holding it as a subordinate feature of our educational system.
The labor unions approve it.—Hon. B. G. Northrop (Clinton, Conn.): It is a significant fact that the labor unions in this country and in Europe approve obligatory education. Both political parties favor it. So far as I know, no suggestion for the repeal of our rigid law has been made in the legislature, nor in any caucus or public meeting in the State (Connecticut).
III.-COURSES OF STUDY-ADJUSTMENT OF SCHOOL PROGRAMMES.
On the necessity of colleges to supplement high schools.-W. T. Harris (from an address delivered before the Ohio Teachers' Association, June, 1888): The course of study preparatory for college omits for the most part those branches of study which bear the name of "moderns." Modern civilization has developed three great increments and added them to the inherited wisdom of the race. These increments are modern natural science, modern literature, modern history. These three moderns had no well-recognized existence in schools of higher education a century ago. A knowledge of them was not demanded or expected from the educated man, unless he was a specialist. The condition of things has changed so materially through the influence of the newspaper and periodical within the past fifty years that no man can pass for educated without more or less minute acquaintance with these three phases of modern activity. They have become recognized as conventionalities of intelligence. This is the all-sufficient reason for introducing the rudiments of these things into the most elementary schools and for continuing their study in all grades of higher schools. Nothing can mak up for the student, who shall receive a higher education, the deficit in his culture caused by a neglect of the study of the three "moderns " in early life. They ought to exist in his mind through the period of his primary education as well as in his secondary and higher education. Without these the disciplinary effect of classical study must necessarily be weakened through the want of modern facts to explain, for the classic lore is related to these moderns as embryonic presupposition, and this is why it helps to understand ourselves.
If this be true, the modifications that have been made in the course of study pursued in college in recent times (say in the last twenty years) are not for the most part based upon a correct insight into the difficulty to be met. The management of college education in this country has answered the objection which charges it with neglect of the three "modern" branches until the last two years of the college course, by raising the standard of admission sufficiently to cover the work of the first two years of the former college course, and thereupon it exhibits a programme in which the three moderns are represented throughout the course either as "required" or "elective" studies.
The question in dispute did not concern the length of time devoted to higher education, but the early introduction of the moderns into the course of study, so that these moderns stand side by side with the disciplinary studies through the whole course. If four years of preparation and two years of college work, or six years in all, were devoted to the exclusive study of the classics and mathematics, with an almost entire neglect of moderns, the case would not be altered if these six years should be relegated entirely to the preparatory school. In order to meet the difficulty discussed here, the college should have changed the conditions required for admission, and thus have compelled the preparatory school to introduce the moderns in a proper manner side by side with the classical studies. Of course the elevation of the standard of the collage can be justified on its own grounds. It obliterates the mischievous distinction that existed between the standards of American and English colleges. But this is not so important as the readjustment demanded of the college in order to bring it into harmony with primary education, founded on a true appreciation of the demand of modern studies in education. As is usual in the discussion of political and social reforms, the parties to the dispute are busied, each, with bringing forward his own partisan view of the case. There is little that is judicial and impartial, going to the root of the question and confirming and establishing what is of permanent worth on either side. The advocates of the "moderns" wish to dispense entirely with classical study while the defenders of the college system refuse to yield place for the "moderns."
In the colleges of the Northwestern States, led by the State universities, there has been some substantial progress made towards a modification that will recognize the received high-school course of study as a preparation. But such modification only makes these colleges a separate phase of education, differing more and more widely from the standard college of the Atlantic States. To reach the high standard of admission required by the Eastern colleges the
public high school ought to add two years to its course. This would make the course of study in the common-school system fourteen years instead of twelve, as at present, and is impracticable. The average age of the high-school graduate at present being eighteen and a half years, it would manifestly oe unwise to demand six years instead of four years to complete his college course. The colleges that have raised their standards of admission, therefore, have done much to widen the breach between high-school and college education.
In the signs of the times I do not discover any promise of the reform of this state of things on the part of the management of colleges. Even the cloud "no bigger than a man's hand" in the Northwest does not indicate so much true appreciation of the necessity of moderns in primary and secondary education as it indicates a wise insight into the desirability of connecting the college with the public school as it is. It surrenders its convictions in behalf of the old régime, and lowers its standard in order to adapt itself to unpropitious circumstances. In better times it hopes a reform in the public school that will devote more attention to the classics and mathematics at the expense of the "moderns." Meanwhile, the influence of the college is felt in the building up of preparatory courses within the high school, fastening upon the public-school system a recognition of the necessity of private, separate, and distinct secondary education in order to fit for a college education.
What is the remedy?
One must turn to the teachers of public high schools and to superintendents of public instruction for the adoption of the only means of relief. Unusual efforts must be made on the part of public high schools to induce their pupils to complete their education in colleges. The personal influence of the teachers, in one year's time, will avail to double the number of high-school graduates who seek a college training. The greater maturity of mind which comes from a well-balanced preparatory course will furnish a prevailing argument in favor of a more symmetrical system. Within a few years, when the colleges have come to derive a large majority of their pupils from public high schools, this question will receive its due consideration for reasons of private interest, if for no other. The numerical strength of high-school graduates who have subsequently received a college education will assist in the solution of this question.
But no solution will be more than a makeshift if it does not secure the recognition of "moderns" as an essential portion of the course of study in all elementary and preparatory schools and a like recognition of the necessity of classic study in all secondary and higher education.
In the "moderns" one finds the expression of his present civilization; in the classics, its embryonic forms and evolution.
After the presentation of these special discussions of the elements of our problem we may draw the following conclusions:
1. If the universities and colleges of the country shall more and more depend on special preparatory schools for their students, then it will follow that college graduates are less likely to be in sympathy with the system of common schools.
2. If the high-school teachers, on the other hand, continue to be lukewarm toward college education, and perhaps go so far as to discourage their pupils from completing their education in colleges after graduating from the high school, it will follow that the men of amplest directive power, the leaders in literature and the molders of public opinion, especially on the subject of education, will not be furnished by the common-school system.
It will follow, too, that the numbers who resort to college will not increase in proportion to our population. These dangers, in brief, I hold in this paper, may be averted by earnest personal endeavor on the part of high-school teachers and the superintendents of city schools to influence high-school pupils to present themselves in large numbers for admission to college. Extra efforts will double and treble the high-school quota in college, even under the present disadvantages of course of study.
This first step being taken, it will become possible, then, to secure the desirable changes in the higher course of study.
The gap between the elementary schools and colleges.-President Eliot, of Harvard University: Only nine Massachusetts high schools send pupils to Harvard College every year. In 1889, out of 352 persons who were admitted to Harvard College as candidates for the degree of bachelor of arts, 97, or 27 per cent, were prepared at free public schools; but these schools were only 30 in number from the whole country, 23 of them being New England schools. The plain fact is that not one-tenth of the schools called high in Massachusetts habitually maintain a course of study which enables the pupil to prepare himself for admission