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"For our young women we need dormitories; and for the purpose of teaching, cooking, nursing, domestic economy, we need enlarged facilities. We need these, not for our necessary school purposes only, but to create a desire for neatness and pleasant surroundings in the homes that these young women are to make in the future. The need of additional buildings is more especially evident when it is understood that every room on the grounds is occupied by students or teachers."
From the Daniel Hand School, New Orleans.-It is the old story-200 turned away for lack of room. A few have come from the country without ever thinking that they might not find a place, and stand hopelessly on the street corner talking it over.
Another teacher says: "We are crowded to overflowing in every grade of the school but one, in which we have three unoccupied seats. In the normal department twenty pupils are without desks. Yesterday one of the ministers of the city applied for admission of his two daughters, who had completed the course in the public schools—just the class of pupils we like to have come-but I could not admit them for want of room."
From report of President T. D. Tucker, of Florida State Normal College for Colored Students."The surest test of the appreciation of the race for the school is in the sacrifices made by patrons in sending and maintaining scholars here and the eagerness of the latter to avail themselves of the opportunity offered them for instruction. With limited means or from daily earnings parents send their children to this school from distant parts of the State, and meet all the financial engagements incident to the education of a young person during the entire session of nine months. Although this is the second year since the school has had dormitory halls, not only has every patron met all his obligations, but the demand for more room in the dormitories is restricted by our inability to provide for any more newcomers.
"The promptness and regularity of attendance at the daily sessions of the school is another proof of high appreciation. No severer punishment for breach of discipline can be inflicted on any of them than to be ordered to leave school for even part of a day. They seem to feel that every day and hour are too precious to be lost from the prosecution of the purpose for which they have come hither from their homes. This strong regard and attachment for a school but lately established is one of the most pleasing features, which promise for it, let it be hoped, a long career of usefulness. Wherever the services of our undergraduates have been once had, there they are held most in demand-a testimonial to their efficiency and the need of them as workers in the common schools."
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From report of the American Missionary Association committee in 1891.-"The total number under instruction during the year has increased by several hundred, and almost every school is crowded to overflowing, compelling in many cases the sad necessity of sending away great numbers of applicants from lack of room for their accommodation. It is evident that the thirst of the colored people for knowledge, shown so remarkably from the moment of their emancipation, has not diminished, but is constantly increasing."
At Claflin University, South Carolina, a large number of students were instructed in trades and industries; in agriculture, including gardening and horticulture, 40 students; in architectural drawing, 13; in art needlework, 20; in blacksmithing, 98; in brickmaking, bricklaying, plastering, and frescoing, 92; in carpentry and cabinetmaking, 185; in cooking, 35; crocheting and lacemaking, 120; domestic economy, 13; dressmaking, 36; mechanical engineering, 15; merchandising, 1; nurse-training, 14; painting, graining, and glazing, 81; printing, 69; steam laundrying, 50; steam planing, sawing, turning, 26; steam milling, grinding cereals, 4; shoemaking, 21; plain sewing, 190.
President L. M. Dunton, of Claflin University, says: In the past the negro has been a laborer. For years to come he must be a laborer. A few of course will be educated and will enter the ministry, the law, the medical profession; but the vast majority must labor with their hands. It is therefore very important to give them this manual training. We are very enthusiastic about this, and we do not allow any young woman to graduate until she can measure, cut, fit, and make a dress, and make it in style. They also learn cooking and artistic needlework. The young men are required to learn the principles of different trades, and to learn one trade thoroughly. We require a certificate from some
one of the industrial departments that they have accomplished the required work before they can graduate from the institution. During the vacations these young men and women work at these trades that they have learned at the institution. We have boys now earning a dollar and a half a day at house painting, others earning $2 a day laying brick or at carpentry. In our blacksmith department they make all the tools they use; they even make their own razors. This industrial feature has been an inspiration to the literary department."
At Gilbert Academy, Winsted, La., there are 12 students in the printing office, 14 in the carpenter shop, 16 on the farm, 53 girls in the sewing room, 3 in the bakery, besides a large number in the laundry.
Philander Smith College, Little Rock, Ark.-"The industrial department is carried on in a two-story frame building erected by the students. In this department there are 114. The citizens of Little Rock have given over $800 towards paying for the building. A large number of young men have been taught the use of tools. In the printing department several young men and young ladies have been taught."
Rust University, Mississippi.—In the carpenter shop 35 young men were instructed in the use of tools and methods of construction, from the most common articles in use in home and on farm to fine cabinet work. Twenty-seven were taught shoemaking, from the making of cheap shoes to the finest French kid boot. Eleven were instructed in the printing office, and a monthly paper was published. The young men below the college course, who were not assigned to some trade, were put in the department of agriculture. In the sowing department 102 girls received useful instruction in that line.
Clark University, Atlanta, Ga.-"At Clark University we have one of the best located as well as one of the best equipped industrial schools south of the Ohio. We have one large brick building, Ballard Hall, 100 by 40 feet. The first floor is divided into two parts: one-half is occupied by the wheelwright shop. The second floor is divided into four rooms, one occupied by the printing office, one by the varnish and finishing department, another by the harness and trimming shop, while the remaining one is devoted to an office and mechanical drafting. The machinery is driven by a 30 horse-power engine. We have a blacksmith shop 40 by 30 feet, brick, three forges, drills, benches, etc. We have a foundry, 60 by 40 feet, supplied with the latest improved cupola.
The Woman's Home Missionary Society has a building worth $6,000, built after the best models and thoroughly equipped with appliances for teaching in the culinary department, needlework, dressmaking, and all that a wife in a wellregulated home ought to know. The university physician has a class in nursetraining in this home also. A shoe shop and a machine shop are among the things now under contemplation."
Central Tennessee College.-"On October 15, 1890, the mechanic arts shop was dedicated to the training of young men for useful work in wood, iron, brass, and steel; in the manufacture of steam engines, scientific, and philosophical apparatus. Rev. H. G. Sedgwick, M. S., who is a genius himself in mechanics and can readily impart instruction to others, has during the year had excellent work done by students in wood-turning, shaping and planing, castings, steel, and brass. One engine has been built and considerable repair work done. This is the best shop, and the only one of the kind, open to colored youth in this country."
Dr. Atticus G. Haygood, general agent of the Slater fund, says: "It has been demonstrated that an hour or two a day in the workshop or the sewing room does not hinder in the least education in books. It has been found, as a rule, that the best men in the shop are the leaders in the class room. Experienced teachers say that industrial training fosters good discipline and the upbuilding of strong and reliable personal character. Outside the important fact that a great number have learned enough of the trades to pursue them profitably, it is certain that thousands have learned enough to be independent as citizens and far more capable as heads of families. That 'head, heart, and hand training' should go on together in these institutions is now the accopted doctrine in all quarters.
"It can not be doubted that the success of industrial training in the negro schools has had much to do with the development of opinion throughout the Southern States of the importance of this part of education in the white schools of the country."
Gen. S. C. Armstrong on industrial training.—"Labor is a great moral and educational force. Next to the grace of God, hard work, in its largest sense, is the most vital thing in Christian civilization. Subtract from any neighborhood,
within a radius of ten miles, all industry, and in six months, in spite of churches and schools, what would become of order and decency? Look at the fairest civilization, and you will see that the worst lives are at the top and at the bottomthose who are too rich and those who are too worthless to work. Wherever you find industry you find character and morality.
"The main thing, then, in the industrial system is to open as widely and broadly as possible opportunities for agricultural, mechanical, and household industries, which shall provide negro students me to support themselves and to develop character. Character is the foundation. The training that our pupils get is an endowment. An able-bodied student represents a capital of perhaps a thousand dollars. We propose to treble that. When they learn a trade they are worth threefold more in the labor market. Last Saturday I gave my final words to our graduating class. I said to those 45 scholars, How many of you can go out into the world, and, if you can not get a school, how many can work in some line of industry and so support yourselves?' There was a roar. Every one said, 'I can,' and every one laughed. They go out into the world smiling at difficulties, happy in their pluck and purpose and skill.
"We are convinced that the negro needs physical as well as mental and Christian training. He needs the ten hours' drudgery which he gets in the shops to put him in shape for the struggle of life. He must go to his work with an appetite."
Rev. R. H. Allen, Concord, N. C.-"We have now a large boarding school for colored girls. If you ever save the negroes you must save the girls and women. You will not elevate any race until wives and mothers can teach the gospel in their families. You must save the daughters of the freedmen. They are to be the wives and mothers and home-makers of the future. At Concord you will see 234 girls in a seminary, with all the appliances for education and the industrial arts. They do the whole work of the school-all the washing, ironing, cooking, scrubbing, and dressmaking. We take a girl for $45 a year. We say to her, Go to work during the vacation and make $15 or $20 and we will help you to the balance of the $45. In such schools, by a practical education of the head, hand, and heart, the girls are all well prepared to take their part in life. We help them to make character."
Rev. Frank G. Woodworth, president Tougaloo University, Mississippi.—“The ordinary laborers on plantations do not often receive more than from 75 to 90 cents per day. I want to speak of the value of industrial education. Boys who come to us untrained, often able to earn only 75 cents a day, are sent out as carpenters, blacksmiths, or tinsmiths, able to earn from $1.25 to $2.50 a day. We are having that repeated constantly. That is the bread-and-butter view of industrial education, and it is worthy of mention. The mechanics who receive $2 a day do not live in a one-room cabin. They are getting to have good little homes of their own."
The higher education helps the elementary.-President Horace Bumstead, of Atlanta University: "It is a mistake to forget that the higher education of the few is contributing most efficiently to the elementary education of the many. What are the graduates of these higher institutions doing? Are they going out and enjoying their culture, and making a selfish use of it? Take Atlanta University. We have sent out, in the last 16 or 18 years, over 200 graduates from our collegiate and normal courses, two-thirds of whom are to-day engaged in teaching. They are doing this very work that we are reminded is the most important work to do-helping up the masses, educating the people. One must remember the relationship between the higher and the more elementary work. Where would these Southern States get their teachers for the colored public schools if it were not for these higher institutions?"
Colored teachers wanted.-President E. C. Mitchell, of Leland University, New Orleans: "More colored teachers must be educated. The appeals made to our institution to furnish teachers qualified for the higher work, or even the common work, are far beyond the power we have to meet. If we had four times as many graduates, we should not be able to meet the demand made upon us for teachers of the higher grade. All the institutions of the South must be carried on by colored teachers."
What kind of education the negro needs.-Dr. A. G. Haygood: "That many halftaught and unwisely-taught negroes 'go to the bad' and seek money by 'short cuts' is not surprising. In these matters the negro's weakness illustrates his brotherhood to his white neighbors. The prisons show enough half-educated white people to prove that merely learning the rudiments does not secure virtue.
In all races it is true that with new knowledge new temptations come; strength to resist comes after, if at all. In all this a man of sense finds no argument against the education of the negro, but a demonstration of the need, for him and for the white race, of more and better education.
666 Better' is not the same as 'more;' the imminent need for the negro is to find out what education is now fittest for him. Nothing in these statements means the exclusion of the negro from the highest and widest studies of which some of are capable; it does mean, as see it, that the 'regulation college curriculum' is not what most negro students need. I would exclude, by arbitrary and prescriptive rules, no negro from whatever he can achieve, but I am persuaded that, in overlooking the hard facts of this case and in pressing the college' idea overmuch, there has been much waste of money, labor, time, opportunity.
"The educated negro man gravitates to the pulpit or the schoolroom. To the pulpit first, because here he may gratify, without hindrance, his inborn love of speaking. He is oratorical by instinct, and this race will more and more develop great orators. The educated negro woman goes to the schoolroom by preference, but she would rather be wife to the preacher. Along here are perils that wise negroes understand.
"Why should such indications and tendencies surprise us? No man lives by the labor of his hands who can live by his wits, least of all American white men. The negro's dangers are greater because his opportunities outside the labor of his hands are few. No arguments, nor frettings, nor denunciations, nor laws, nor force can multiply them; time and new conditions, possible only to the 'time element,' can increase them.
"The educated negro finds it difficult to succeed in the practice of law. White people employ attorneys of their own race, and a negro will have none but a white man for lawyer when large sums are at stake, or life or liberty are imperiled. But he has made a beginning' in the law.
"Next to teaching and preaching, medicine among professional pursuits offers the best field and the best opportunity for the capable negro. The reason is, there is a generally recognized and felt need of negro doctors. Two of the institutions in connection with the Slater fund-Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tenn., and Leonard Medical School, Raleigh, N. C.-are thoroughgoing schools of medicine and command the respect of the medical profession. The large majority of the graduates of the schools are doing admirably in the practice of medicine. They are a blessing to their race and are successful and useful citizens."
The following, from the Charleston (S. C.) News and Courier, gives some idea of how the negro appreciates an education at Claflin University, South Carolina: "The students come from all parts of the State, and a better class of colored families are represented than usual. From the number of students (902), their condition and their work, it would seem as if the colored people are taking more than ordinary interest in the cause of education. Many parents are making great sacrifices to send their children to Claflin, and many of the students are in much better circumstances than their parents at home. The students lack early home training. They do not have access to daily papers, magazines, or books like most white children. As a rule subjects of importance and interest are not discussed in the family circle, and on account of these drawbacks the colored student labors under disadvantages. A lack of general information is noted by the professor. Their behavior is, as a rule, very good. There is not, in the knowledge of the officials of the institution, a single student who visits a barroom, smokes in the campus or in the streets.
"A student probably has less expense at Claflin than at any other educational institution in the country. Think of it-all actual expenses for a session covered by $52! What can be cheaper? This is popular education. The figures seem to be hardly credible. Here is the itemized bill for a month: Rent, $1; incidentals, 50 cents; tuition, 50 cents; board, $3.50; washing, $1; total, $6.50 per month and $52 per session. You may think that dormitory rent at $1 and washing at $1 are reasonable. But you, as many others, will ask how can a living working being be fed for $3.50? Well, it is done at Claflin, and here is how it is accomplished. Fifty students club together and get a table at the dining hall for which they pay no rent. They are not afraid of work and agree to do all the washing, waiting, and setting of tables in turn. A purchasing committee is appointed, and they have potatoes, meat, corn, and rice at the cheapest market price. The only expense besides the food is that of a cook. It seems almost incredible, but the students eat substantial meals and the bill of fare shows what they eat."
From the report of the American Missionary Association committec in 1891.-"One of the greatest needs of the colored people is coming to be that of competent, educated, Christian leaders of their own race, preachers, teachers, and other professional men, a need not likely to be adequately supplied except by the colleges and higher schools sustained by this and other Christian bodies. It may be safely assumed from the history of other races that no leadership will be permanently accepted by the colored people except such as shall come from their own ranks. In furnishing through its higher institutions such a thoroughly equipped leadership to take the place of its own at the earliest moment, this association will make one of its best contributions to the welfare of the colored race. Another encouraging fact in the same direction is the growing interest in the theological department. As an ignorant ministry has been and still is the curse of the colored people, a thoroughly educated ministry is the highest boon we can possibly confer upon them."
"Straight University has numbered 582 students, who come from a wide area. It is not uncommon for students who can speak no English to seek this institution from Cuba, Central America, Mexico, or some parts of Louisiana. It is an inspiring thought that they will return to their homes, as some have returned, with Christ in their hearts and thrifty thoughts in their heads to radiate good influences in those revolutionary states. This institution has been more than filled. Hundreds have been refused admission. Every year shows marked improvement in the quality of student life in this, as in all our schools. Pupils come better prepared. They are more earnest and more energetic. The demand for teachers from this institution is greater than the supply. Seventeen of its former students are now teaching in the city schools of New Orleans. Many others are filling important places as teachers, superintendents, and preachers in neighboring States. Various industries for men and all kinds of needlework and housework for women are well taught."
Temperance is taught in all the higher colored schools.-Rev. J. C. Roy: "In all of these schools the principle of temperance is taught and the students go out and propagate these sentiments among their people. In this way they produce an immense amount of temperance sentiment among the colored folks.""
The Negro Conference at Tuskegee, Ala.-A negro conference made up of representatives from that district of the South known as the "Black Belt" was held at Tuskegee, Ala., on February 23, 1892. About 450 colored farmers, ministers, and teachers were present, and a full and candid discussion was had of questions affecting the industrial, moral, educational and religious future of the negro population.
In dealing with the question of the proper means to be adopted for the correction of the existing unsatisfactory order of things, the conference suggested various remedies, which may be summarized, in the language of those assembled, as follows:
(1) That, as far as possible, we aim to raise at home our own meat and bread. (2) That as fast as possible we buy land, even though a very few acres at a time. (3) That a large number of our young people be taught trades and that they be urged to prepare themselves to enter as largely as possible all the various avocations of life. (4) That we especially try to broaden the field of labor for our women. (5) That we make every sacrifice and practise every form of economy that we may purchase land and free ourselves from our burdensome habit of living in debt. (6) That we urge our ministers and teachers to give more attention to the material condition and home life of the people. (7) We urge that our people do not depend entirely upon the State to provide schoolhouses and lengthen the time of the schools, but that they take hold of the matter themselves where the State leaves off, and by supplementing the public funds from their own pockets and by building schoolhouses bring about the desired results. (8) We urge patrons to give earnest attention to the mental and moral fitness of those who teach their schools. (9) That we urge the doing away with all sectarian prejudice in the management of schools."
The Lake Mohonk Conference.-In June, 1891, there was held at Lake Mohonk, N. Y., a conference of distinguished editors and educators on the negro question. It was presided over by ex-President Hayes, and among those present were Dr. Lyman Abbott, of the Christian Union; Dr. W. H. Ward, of the Independent; Dr. W. T. Harris, United States Commissioner of Education; Gen. O. O. Howard, Dr. Charles H. Hall, Mr. Morris K. Jessup, and Rev. R. T. Middleditch, of the Christian Enquirer. At the conclusion of the conference the following platform was adopted.