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ogy, geology, and geography. The syllabus for Greek and chemistry will very well illustrate the method of conducting courses in language and in science.


(1) Lectures (once a week during the second half year). Topics: Discussion of existing methods of acquiring the elements. Outline of method recommended in teaching forms and syntax. Method of securing practical application of the knowledge acquired. The art of reading. Acquisition of a vocabulary. Translation and retranslation. Review of grammar during the second year's work in school. Wider application of the principles of "reading at sight" and of the group system" in the acquisition of a vocabulary. Method of teaching the facts of geography, history, and antiquities. Greek prose composition.Method of teaching the dialectical and syntactical peculiarities of Herodotus and Homer. Amounts to be read. Homeric verse. Geography, history, and antiquities. Literary treatment.-List of books to be used or con


(2) Practical exercises: Discussion of topics suggested by members of the course.-Practice in outlining lessons, in construction of exercises, in formation of word groups, in selection of passages for translation at sight, in composing English passages to be translated into Greek, and in arranging facts of geography, history, and antiquities for presentation to a class.


(1) Lectures (five). Topics: Methods of teaching chemical science. The history of the development of the modern methods. Fit adjustment of theoretical and experimental teaching and the value of each as modes of mental discipline. How far chemistry can profitably be taught in the secondary and primary schools. Best means of securing enduring results. The best and most economical ways of installing and of furnishing a school laboratory, and the precautions required to insure profitable and safe work from immature students. Suggestions on the preparation and delivery of experimental lectures. The best system of teaching the three main branches of elementary chemistry, viz: General descriptive chemistry, mineralogy, or the natural history aspect of chemistry, and qualitative chemical analysis.

(2) Additional exercises: In order to gain a competent knowledge of class-room and laboratory methods of teaching chemistry, the stu dent will find it essential to take such of the following courses as he has not already studjed: Chemistry, A, B, C, 1 and 3. (See the general announcement of the courses of instruction provided by the faculty for 1891-92.)

The courses at Harvard are "adapted to the purposes of teachers and of persons intending to become teachers," not so with the curriculum of the department of education of Clarke University. At the latter institution the work in pedagogy is "primarily shaped to meet the special needs of two classes, one composed of those desiring to qualify themselves for professorships of pedagogy in universities, colleges, or normal schools, the other class composed of those who intend to become superintendents of State or city systems of education or wish to fit for other administrative positions." In following out this programme President Hall has constructed a curriculum that is quite an innovation. This curriculum falls, it would seem, under four heads-comparative pedagogy (if that term may be used to connotate the description and comparison of foreign systems of education), the social effects of higher education, the effect of the artificial or intellectual development of the child upon his natural or physical development, and special pedagogy, beginning with the three R's. The courses in neurology, experimental psychology, anthropology, and practical ethics (criminalogy, pauperism, and defectives) are open to the students.

Certificates of proficiency are given on completion of the course at both universities, whose course has been described, but at the University of Iowa something more than a testimonial of proficiency is conferred. After two years of successful teaching graduates of the university who have taken a full course in pedagogy may obtain the degree of Bachelor of Didactics. The course in pedagogy of this university-fully described in Circular of Information No. 8, 1891is composed of three sections, known as history of education (fall term), educational science and systems (winter term), and school management and exemplification of methods of instruction (spring term). During the week preceding annual commencement the State board of education holds an examination at the university for the State certificate.

The teachers' department of the University of Tennessee has been organized to aid in educating teachers for the public and private schools of the State, but especially to give this class of public-school teachers an opportunity to secure a better education. "The course is in no sense a normal department. Our (Tennessee) teachers have already, in the various normal schools, college, and institutes, sufficient opportunty for that kind of training if they want it. The purpose of the university is to advance knowledge, and the object of this course is to stimulate its students to seek a complete, liberal education, and it is hoped that many of them will take a full college and university course. A due proportion of professional training is provided as a part of their education, but in every thing the thorough development of the man in all his powers will be the object aimed at, and not merely his training to perform a few professional pro

cesses. Even the work in the common-school branches has for its object the perfection of the teacher-student in these subjects."

A course practically of the same nature as that just spoken of is offered by the University of Wisconsin to graduates of the State normal schools who desire to improve their scholarship.

At Cornell, Columbia, and Princeton, under various titles, there are courses or quasi courses in pedagogy which juniors or seniors of the regular college course may elect. Of these the course at Cornell has the name of The science and art of teaching."

Two schools of pedagogy which are connected with universities have peculiarities that require mention. The comparatively elaborate system of pedagogical degrees conferred by the University of the City of New York is based upon the idea inaugurated at Iowa, that a degree should follow successful teaching and not precede the efforts of the holder in the school room, and further that the course in the science and art of teaching is a professional course to be pursued by persons whose general education has been finished at a college or at a normal school. The conditions under which the degrees are conferred are as follows:


Each student of the school who has been a member of the senior class for two or more years and a resident student at least one year, will be entitled to the degree of doctor of pedagogy upon the following conditions:

(1) He must have been credited with attendance upon the required lectures.
(2) He must have been credited with attendance upon the required seminaria.
(3) He must have passed an examination upon each of the five courses.

(4) He must have presented the prescribed final thesis as defined below and have received approval of the same.

(5) He must have presented, upon entering the school, a certificate showing seven years' successful experience in school-rooin work.


Each student of the school who has been a member of the junior class for one or more years, and a resident student at least one year, will be entitled to the degree of master of pedagogy upon the following conditions:

(1) He must have been credited with attendance upon the required lectures. (2) He must have passed the examination upon each of the four courses first named. (3) He must present a certificate showing three years' successful experience in school-room


The features of the department of pedagogy of the University of South Carolina that call for special mention are (1) the establishment of an undergraduate and graduate course and (2) the introduction of modeling and blackboard drawing as a part of the undergraduate course.

Turning now to the schools of pedagogy which are unconnected with a university, it seems advisable to take up the recently established State Normal College at Albany, N. Y., since the American prototype of this class of schools, the New York College for the Training of Teachers, has been fully discussed in chapter VIII of Circular No. 8, 1891, of this Bureau, and in the Bureau's annual reports.

Of the several schools which constitute the normal-school system of New York the school at Albany was the first to be established, owing its existence to the incompetency of the normal classes of the academies to fill their proper functions. In Michigan, and in other States, the State university was called upon to give the higher education in the science and art of teaching required by the times, but in the States of which the Union was originally composed, with the exception of New York, higher education is not under State influences, much less under State control, and in creating a school of pedagogy even, New York selected one of her own schools for the purpose, and her first State Normal School became the first State Normal College.

This college has been established to give instruction in the science and art of teaching. It is a purely professional institution, consequently nothing will be studied or taught in it which does not bear directly upon the business of teaching. Advanced courses in mathematics, the natural sciences, rhetoric, and such studies can not be pursued in the college, inasmuch as only methods of teaching those subjects are taught, a knowledge of them being a prerequisite. Without dwelling on the particulars of the administration of the college which is just entering upon its work, it suffices to say that there are three courses of study,

namely, the English, the classical, and the kindergarten. The minimum age for admission to the first and second courses is seventeen years, while for the kindergarten course the minimum age is fixed at eighteen. The only course which leads to a degree (B. Ped.) is the classical course, which is of two years. Its subjects are as follows:


First term.-Philosophy of education, school economy, drawing.

Methods of teaching the following subjects, viz: Num er. place, language, reading, arithmetic, geography, grammar, penmanship, botany, physiology, zoology, composition, color, object lessons. A course of reading connected with professional work.

Second term.-Methods of teaching the following subjects: Algebra, physics, Latin, mineralogy and geology, geometry, chemistry, rhetoric, astronomy, preparation of specimens and apparatus, discussion of educational themes.

Third term.-Methods of teaching the following subjects: Latin, Greek or French or German, history, physical geography, solid geomentry and mensuration, civil government, trigonom etry, bookkeeping, English literature, sanitary science, school architecture, preparation of specimens and apparatus, discussion of educational themes.

Fourth term.-History of education, school law, kindergarten methods.

Methods of teaching the following subjects, viz: Music, drawing, physical culture, elocution, familiar science, teaching in model school, a course of reading connected with professional work, discussion of educational themes, school supervision.

Among four hundred institutions carried on the lists of this Bureau as universities or colleges one hundred and fourteen report students in teachers' courses to the number of 3,414. In other words, nearly 8 per cent of the enrollment of the four hundred institutions were studying in the teachers' course or department of one hundred and fourteen colleges. Of these one hundred and fourteen colleges the great majority are situated in the Mississippi Valley; scarcely any of them are located in the New England or Middle States. With few exceptions these departments, or courses, are nothing more than no mal schools, which are usually classed among institutions of secondary grade. In many of these departments Latin is introduced as a required or as an optional study; in most cases, however, the course is concerned with the studies of the grammar grade of the public schools, with high-school mathematics and science. Bible instruction and surveying appear occasionally. In some cases it is very evident that the teachers' course is constructed on the interchangeable parts plan. Thus if history of education, school management, etc., be omitted and less technical subjects be introduced the prepara ory course of the college or university is formed. At the completion of the course, which is intended. it would seem, to prepare for teaching in the district schools of the State, a certificate of proficiency is given. The length of the course of the schools of the class now under consideration is generally of three or four years, frequently it is of two, sometimes of one. the case of a one or two years' course, however, the course may be looked upon as special or irregular. In conclusion it may be said that an intelligent graduate of a thoroughly taught high school who had attentively read Compayré's History of Pedagogical Ideas, a book on methods and management, and Sully's Psychology, for example, might graduate immediately and with honor from the great majority of the normal departments or teachers' courses of our colleges and universities.


The Normal Department of the National College for the Deaf at Washington presents several unique features. To supply a limited demand for specially trained hearing-and-speaking teachers in schools for deaf-mutes, a few modestly endowed fellowships are available annually. The candidates for fellowships are graduates of approved colleges and universities specially certified by instructors in these institutions, and nominated by heads of schools for the deaf. The degree of Master of Arts is conierred upon fellows satisfactorily completing the course of study and practice. Harvard, Williams, Amherst, Yale, University of Mississippi, De Pauw, etc., have been represented in this department. The course of study includes lectures and assigned readings with required essays upon general or comparative" pedagogics; class-room and "seminary " investigation of the literature of deaf-mute instruction; the dispassionate consideration of rival methods; the mastery of means of communication with deaf-mutes; lectures upon anatomy and physiology of the vocal organs, and laryngoscopy; the study of English phonetics, mechanism of elements of speech, Bell's Visible Speech, and observation and practice classes in speech and "lip-reading," with detailed weekly reports of work done, occasional examinations, and a thesis. In the course of the year each member of the class is expected to teach at least one deaf-mute pupil to speak. The same course of study has been pursued by ⚫candidates for certificates only.'


As the pages go through the press Prof. Gordon, in charge of the Articulation Department of the National College for the Deaf, kindly furnishes the foregoing sketch of the work of one of his departments.



The diagrams and maps on pages 838 et seq., the consolidated statistics given on pages 3 and 4, and the general discussion of the curricul of the several classes of pro.essional schools leave no occasion to discuss the statistics of the year. Indeed. to do so would be but to repeat what is said far more concisely in h summaries which follow. These summaries have not been drawn with the intent of showing statistically the entire life of the various institutions during the year under review, but with the view of presenting a few primary facts, to wit, the number of schools, the number of instructors and students in them, of gradua es from them, and, as far as the replies of the Bureau's correspondents will allow, the proportion of the students having a degree in letters or science. If the secondary statistics, such as the financial particulars, are missed, they may readily be found by examining the report preceding, where they have been given with as much accuracy as the character of the institutions concerned (university dena tm nts, independent schools occupying rented buildings, etc.) will admit. Matte s of this subordinate kind do not vary sufficiently within a twelvemonth to requie annual insertion. Even in the case of the colleges endowed by the acts of Congress of 1862 and August 30, 1890, it is preferable to wait and use the more reliable figures which the act of the latter date exacts than those furnished to the Bureau under the provisions of the law of 1862. Table 6, therefore may be regarded as a compilation that falls short in its totals of the true amounts.

In the case of the normal schools, the amount received from public funds shows a great increase over that reported for the preceding year. It is evident that this is due in some measure to the separation of the qu stion usually asked in the Bureau's form of inquiry into two items, namely, appropriation for support and appropriation for building. In former years it would appear that, as a rule, only the amount for support was reported. Assuming this hypothesis for a moment as true, an increase of only $28,000 is shown between the appropriation for the support of public normal schools for the years 1888–89 and 1889-90. This amount is too small, as appropriations for building were undoubtedly included in 1888–89 which have been rigorously excluded in 1889-90.

TABLE 1.-Summary of statistics of schools of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, for nurses, and veterinarians.

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TABLE 1.-Summary of statistics of schools of medicine, dentistry, etc.-Continued.

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