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commercial fertilizers, their preparation and distribution. Analysis of specimens of commercial fertilizer. Study of agricultural instruments, the work they do, the care they should receive, and their repair. Study of plants, of milk. of the teething and age of animals, the foot of the horse, ox, and ass, and shoeing. Beehives, trellises, etc. Insectides, etc. Buildings and materials. Collecting insects.
Outside work.-Spading, raking, rolling, clipping, grafting, pruning, sowing, replanting, growing, cuttings, weeding, making composts, etc.; applying sulphur, etc., to destroy the fungus on vines and vegetables; gathering and preservation of the crops. Special plates for comparative study of the value of the different kinds of manures and cultivated plants. Visits to hothouses, gardens, etc.
The study of biology has been given the attention its importance deserves in a special study issued by this Bureau as Circular of Information No. 9, 1891. By an inadvertency, however, a notice of the biological departments of the University of Illinois was omitted from the circular, and the occasion is here taken to insert an acco: nt of the biological work of that institution, which has been kindly furnished by Prof. S. A. Forbes, of the State laboratory of natural history of Illinois.
The erection, in 1892, at a cost of $60,000, of a new building for the biological departments of the University of Illinois affords a suitable occasion for a description of their organization and work-in some respects typical for the State universities, and in others unique. These departments are thrown together, by the plan of unive sity organization, forming what is known as the school of natural science, which comprises the departments of botany, zoology, entomology, human physiology, and geology.
The courses in this school are especially intended:
(1) To afford a thorough and liberal education with a basis in science and the modern languages.
(2) To prepare for the pursuit of specialties in zoölogy, entomology, botany, general biology. and geology, as a scientific career.
(3) To lay a liberal foundation in biological work and study for a course of medicine.
(4) To prepare for the teaching of the natural and physical sciences either in the higher schools or as a professional specialty.
The sciences required for admission to the studies of the school are botany, physiology, and physics, with algebra through radicals, and plane and solid geometry. The scheme of requirements for graduation is so constructed as to permit the student either to specialize at the beginning of his sophomore year by the selection of a ma or subject, to be pursued, if desired, for three years continuously, or to distribute his principal effort within certain limits over a small group of related subjects. To this end the studies of this school are divided into three groups: (1) required studies. (-) restricted electives, and (3) open electives. Under the head of restricted electives both major and minor courses are given, the former the maximum offering and the latter the minimum requirement in their respective subjects.
No student may graduate from the school of natural science until he has completed all required courses, and has done at least nine terms' work on one major subject, or twelve terms' work on more than one from the group of restricted electives; and taken at least minor courses in all the other subjects of this group in which such courses are offered. The major courses must be chosen for a year at a time, and may not be changed without special permission.
The required subjects are, on the other hand, general culture studies (mathematics, history, and philosophy) and, on the other, modern languages and drawing, required because necessary to any extensive pursuit of the biological sciences. The minor courses of the "restricted elective" group are all one term courses offered in botany, zoology, physiology, geology, physics, and chemistry respectively.
Major courses of three years are offered at present in botany and zoology only. In geology five terms' work may be had, in entomology two terms, and in general biology a single term, coming as a sequel to the courses in zoology and botany.
In botany six courses of instruction are offered five primarily in ended to meet the wants of students making botanical work more or less a specialty, and
the sixth occupying a single term, complete in itself, for students whose chief attention is given to other branches. Three to eight terms' work constitute a major course; that of the single term a minor course. To a very large extent natural objects are studied rather than books; but constant endeavor is made to introduce students to pertinent existing literature. In the laboratory much use is made of the compound microscope and special attention is given to its manipulation for best results, and to the preparation of objects.
The courses offered as major work (ten hours a week) are: (1) the histology, morphology, and physiology of plants; (2) bacteriology; (3) advanced determinative and biological work on fungi; (4) the reproduction and development of plants; and (5) research work for two terms of the senior year for such as are to present a botanical thesis for graduation.
The zoology is taught in five courses: (1) a major course (restricted elective) of a full year, ten hours a week; (2) a term of embryology, likewise ten hours a week, for those who have taken course 1; (3) two terms of research work (senior) for those who have taken courses 1 and 2, and who select a zoological subject for the graduating thesis; (4) a year's work, open elective, in systematic zoology for advanced students only; and (5) a general course of a single term, offered as a minor course in the school of natural science and as an elective to the students of the university at large.
A course in practical and general embryology and in the theory of evolution is given in the fall term as a sequel to course 1. It is required of all students intending to present a zoological thesis, except such as take course 4.
A single course of two terms, ten hours a week, is offered in entomology. It is designed mainly as a preparation for economic work and investigation as a specialty; but students whose principal interest is in structural or systematic entomology are permitted to take a special line of such work in the second term. Paleontology is taught at present as a term's work in geology, and requires a major or a minor course in zoology as a precedent.
The department of human physiology is as yet in embryo, but ample provision for the development of the subject as an experimental science has been made in the new building. At present but a single term is given to it. Comparative physiology is taught extensively, however, as a part of zoology; with assigned experiments by students on the lower animals from the protozoa upwards.
For those who have taken a major course in either botany or zoology a single term (ten hours a week) of general biology is arranged and especially commended. It is intended to review, extend, systematize, and unify the student's knowledge of the phenomena, the history, and the laws of life, of the relations of plant and animal, of living and not living matter, and of biology to other sciences and to philosophy. It is properly a senior study for students of the school of natural science.
The studies of animal life are brought to a conclusion by a single term's work (three hours a week) in anthropology, the objects of which are to summarize the facts and theories relating to the origin of man, to introduce the comparative study of races with a view to ascertaining their relations to each other and to primitive man, and to study the steps by which races change from the savage to the enlightened stage.
The subject of physiological psychology in the department of philosophy is so correlated with these biological courses as to amount to a practical continuation of their methods and spirit into the field of psychological investigation.
Intimately associated with the zoological department of the university, and practically merged with it since 1884, is the work of the Illinois State laboratory of natural history and that of the State entomologist of Illinois, the former consisting essentially of a systematic and thorough-going investigation of the zoölogy and cryptogamic botany of the State, the results of which are in course of publication by the State, and the latter of entomological investigations whose main end is economic, but whose product is largely scientific and educational. Both these departments of work, although supported by appropriations independent of those granted to the university, are directed by the head of the zoological department of university instruction, and provided with quarters and facilities in the new natural science hall. The State laboratory is also the headquarters of an extensive work on the zoology of the fresh waters of the United States, conducted under the auspices of the U. S. Fish Commissioner.
The natural science building is 134 feet in length by 94 in width, and three stories in height above the basement. There is a spacious, well-lighted central hall, around which on all sides are situated laboratories, lecture rooms, closets, storerooms, and dark rooms, a full series for each department.
As an example of the arrangement and equipment of this building a general description may be given of the provision for zoology. The students' la oratories in this department are three in number, on the first floor, for elementary, advanced, and post-graduate work, respectively. In the first, table room is given for 30 students; in the second, for 16; and in the last, for 10. Adjoining the first is the private laboratory of the assistant in zoology and next this is the lecture room. Directly over the assistant's laboratory is that of the professor of zoology, and over the post-graduate laboratory is his private office. On this second floor are also the rooms of the State laboratory of natural history, consisting of an assistant's laboratory, 36 feet by 21; a collection room of the same dimensions; a library, 32 feet by 23; and a room for the artist of the establishment. In the basement of the building is a very large storeroom for the department, and an animal room to be fitted with aquaria, animal cages, and the like. On the third floor are the zoological collection rooms. containing the material required to illustrate the work of the department: The zoological laboratories are furnished with microscopes and with an abundance of microscope apparatus, including several first-class microtomes, an imbedding apparatus, and an incubator. A full equipment for field work in the various departments is at the service of the students, and the library and collections of the State entomologist and the State laboratory of natural history are also made accessible to them under suitable restrictions.
The general museum of zoology and geology is in another building. It occupies a hall 79 by 61 feet, with a gallery on three sides, and it is completely furnished with wall, table, and alcove cases, full to overflowing with prepared material.
HIGHER INSTRUCTION IN THE SCIENCE AND ART OF TEACHING.
If the boast of autobiographies and the complaints of State superintendents go for aught it would seem that in many cases in the early days of the public school systems of the New England States the common schools were taught by college undergraduates, who thus "worked their way through college." Even now it has been stated that "of the more than 6,000 public school teachers in Tennessee at least two-thirds are working earnestly to obtain a good education either by private study or by teaching school and attending college alternately." In this way it is possible to explain the fact that in Massachusetts fifteen years elapsed between the founding of her first normal school and the establishment of public scholarships at Harvard and other colleges for the purpose of providing competent instructors for her one hundred public high schools in existence at the date of 1853.
But by the act of that year Massachusetts did not establish a higher normal training; for forty-eight scholarships of $400 each were created and distributed among her colleges, twelve of which were annually given to as many person selected from among the forty scholarship districts into which her territory had been for this purpose divided,-"The scholarships were filled, the holders graduated, but they failed to become teachers." 991 The colleges turned out what is usually called educated men but not teachers. In 1866 these scholarships were abolished.
There is still another early attempt in this line to chronicle. In 1851 Brown University established a department of didactics in which a course of lectures was given "On the habits of mind necessary to eminent success in teaching, the relation of the teacher to the pupil, etc., and on the elements of the art of teaching or the best methods of imparting instruction in reading, grammar, geography, history, mathematics. language, and the various other branches taught in our higher seminaries." The school, however, soon closed its doors.
This movement, however, was not confined to New England. At the instance of the State superintendent of Michigan the board of regents of the university of that State in 1860 permitted a course of lectures to be given on the principles and philosophy of education and the organization and mangement of schools. But it appears that the University of Iowa was the first to reward the student of pedagogy with a distinctive degree.
131st Annual Rept. Mass. Bd. Ed. (1867), p. 71.
After the repeal of the act of 1853 creating forty-eight scholarships the educational authorities of Massachusetts urged the necessity of an additional and higher course of instruction in the four normal schools of that State. At the d.te of 1870 those schools had a "voluntary" course of two years, chiefly attended by ormer graduates, "who had learned from their experience in teaching the value of a more advanced scholarship."
It was not until 1879 that a definite step was taken in the way of recognizing pedagogy as a science and also of recognizing the necessity of training teachers for schools above the elementary grade. In that year the University of Michigan established a chair which took the expressive name of the "Science and art of teaching." In considering the instruction given from this chair, the inquirer is struck with three facts, to wit, the announcement that the science of education, being one of the latest of the sciences, had not yet been cast intɔ articulate form, in fact was in process of formation; the scholastic character of the a tendance on the course, two-thirds of whom were college graduates; anlmost im ortant of all, the double requirements to be fulfilled befo e the "teacher s diploma" was given to the candidate, the requirements being (1) marked ability in either Greek, Latin, French, or physics as shown by special examinations, and (2) one of the courses offered by the professor of the science and art of t aching. The course of this chair was not long, only occupying, indeed, an ac.demic year, and even this time was halved, one-half being devotel to the study of supervision, grading, courses of study, examinations, the art of instruction and governing (no practice or model school), school architecture, school law, in a word, superintendency, and therefore called practical; and the other half to the history and science of education and comparative pedagogy, if that term may be coined.
The difference between this course and those of either the French fcole Normale, or the Prussian training colleges for Gymnasialpädagogik is marked. To iustrate this it may be profitable to compare the work at the University of Michigan with that of two typical Prussian training colleges for candidates for teachers' positions in the classical schools called gymnasiums.
BERLIN (1885-86).-ESSAYS BY THE MEMBERS OF THE SEMINARY.
MAGDEBURG (1883-84).--ESSAYS BY THE MEMBERS OF THE SEMINARY.
Three hours of Virgil in a Gymnasium.
Criticism of Jean Paul Richter's Lavana:
1. The Importance of Education.
2. Spirit and Principle of Education. 3. Culture through Religion.
4. Origin of Man and Instruction. 5. Bidding and Forbidding.
Proof of the last antinomy in Plato's Parmenides.
The justification and purpose of classical in
Indirect questions in Greek.
What is Herbart's idea of instruction in a foreign language, and upon what has he founded
How far is Xenophon's prejudice for Laconia
Montaigne and Rousseau.
Locke's position in pedagogy.
Criticism of an essay entitled "The character and purpose of classical instruction," by the Director, as follows:
"The paper shows a certain amount of industry; but the theme is not worked out, nor does the author go very deeply into his subject. The essay is more a reproduction of stale thoughts than the independent expressions of opinions of a mind filled with enthusiasm for the dead languages."
Having thus briefly reviewed the efforts to provide for the professional training of teachers at our higher institutions of learning, we now turn to consider the condition of the study of pedagogy in those institutions at the present day, Those interested in the work of the normal schools usually so called are referred to chapters xi-xiv of the Bureau's Report for 1888-89.
It would be difficult to generalize on the pedagogical courses of the more important universities of this country, as they have few elements that are common. Two of these elements, however, are of considerable interest. One is that some universities have complete courses in pedagogy, whether graduate or undergraduate, while others make it an elective study for juniors and seniors in the regular college course. The other common element is that by establishing such a course or study these institutions recognize that the person who intends to teach should have instruction in matters and in methods that the candidate for the degree in arts or science does not receive. This may not be an attempt to recognize education or pedagogy as a science, as political economy or politics under the name of sociology has been recognized, but it is certainly placing pedagogy on the same footing as those subjects.
The only classification of the university courses in the science and art of education that is attempted here is the division into courses in which special pedagogy (methods in Latin, mathematics, etc.) receives the emphasis and those in which the emphasis is placed upon the science of education. To illustrate the first the recently established course at Harvard is used; to illustrate the second the course at Clarke University is given.
From its age, standing, and its conservative attitude in the matter of according to pedagogy a place among the sciences, Harvard University caused more than a passing interest when it announced that in its faculty of arts and sciences "courses for teachers on methods of instruction" had been established. These courses are of university grade; that is to say, they are only open to those who have graduated from a college of arts or of science. As was the case at the University of Michigan in 1879, there is a department or course of pedagogy proper, which is called "The history, theory, and art of teaching," and many courses, each concerned with the best methods of teaching the several studies of the college curriculum. The history, theory, and art of teaching course is divided into three departments, to wit: History of teaching and of educational theories, theory of teaching, and the art of teaching. The first and third are considered, either in the form of a lecture or discussion, twice a week during the year; the second, only once a week. In the first and second subjects two essays are required from the student, in the third the student is expected to observe the teaching in some designated school or schools in the vicinity of the university and, during the second half year, to present reports on what he has seen. In addition to this instruction given or directed by an assistant professor of the university, twelve lectures on "Topics in psychology of interest to teachers" are delivered by the professor filling the chair of philosophy at the university. In special pedagogy there are thirteen subjects of study, Greek, Latin, English, German, French, history. mathematics, physics, chemistry, botany, zoöl