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phrase of a short passage of prose will be exceedingly fruitful in developing the instinct for the precise word and in sharpening the thought to apprehend the exact thought of the writer in its nicest shades. Poetical selections, on the other hand, being by their arrangement frequently somewhat obscure, may be made the basis of exercises in grammatical analysis, until the exact relationship of each word, phrase and clause to the other parts and to the sentence as a whole is fully appreciated. Thus training in thought and development of the judgment will accompany an increased vocabulary and a more precise use of it. IV. A carefully prepared course of formal rhetoric should be made a part of each year's study. .

This is necessary as a standard by which to judge in later years, and is most useful as a grouping of the principles learned from the reading and study of literature. Thus nothing is lost by insufficient drill or by a lack of association with natural connections. If observation and classification are rightly conducted this grouping is also useful as a training in logic. This may of course be done in connection with a text-book in rhetoric, but it is usually more effective when the principles learned are the discovery of the class in the selections they have read, rather than the thought of someone else in a treatise on formal rhetoric.

V. Constant practice in writing should be given, growing more and more difficult as the pupil develops.

This does not necessarily mean that formal compositions should be regularly required. On the contrary one may often teach much more about composition without these bugbears than with them. Carefully written exercises should be required almost daily, but in the beginning such exercises may be short paraphrases, written distinctions between synonyms, brief summaries of principles established with the reasons why they are of importance, or sentences illustrating the proper use of often misused words. As the idea of style becomes more familiar a short passage may occasionally be given, and pupils be required to tell in writing what they think about its style; what qualities are prominent, and how gained; what qualities are lacking, and why. Thus sufficient material is given at first to enable the pupil when writing to give all his attention to the expression;


later he may be expected to develop the thought. But when we begin to require extended written matter from the boys and girls we must remember that their thoughts and opinions are still vague and indefinite; that even when fully formed adequate reasons can seldom be given for them, and that if we would have any full expression of thought we must make the writing cover only matters so familiar that there will be no lack of material. Hence the early requirements for complete compositions should be for descriptions of familiar scenes or persons, narrations of personal experiences, or comments upon books enjoyed. Not until the student has gained considerable power of sustained thought should we expect him to develop an extended exposition or write a continuous argument.

VI. Critical as well as constructive power should be developed, enabling the pupil to distinguish the true in art from the false, and to correct when necessary his own writings.

This can be done only by exercises in correction of the poor and faulty. There is always some hesitation in requiring this in deference to the pedagogical principle that errors should not be placed before the child. Although such exercises must be carefully managed to avoid doing harm, yet we must not think that omitting them will prevent our pupils from seeing what is false and bad in writing. They hear all sorts of poor English in the streets; they use the newest slang on the playground; they read yellow journals, and sometimes dime novels. They will come in contact with poor English whatever we do; and we must make sure that they are able to recognize it as incorrect, to know why it is so, and to be able to improve it.

VII. The ethical bearings of the literature taught should always be present in the mind of the teacher, and the lessons therein embodied should be carefully brought out.

To do this it is not necessary to enumerate the morals of a work of art, nor even to inquire what lessons it teaches; but questions for study may be put to the class so that they cannot fail to get such ethical lessons as may be contained in it. For instance, let a class studying Snow-Bound be given among other questions the following: What touches in the early part of the poem show a sympathy with farm animals? What show a love for inanimate nature? What evidence that family affection is

strong? What evidence of the author's feeling toward the poor and oppressed among his fellow-men? How does he regard death? What is his belief about a future life? What are his feelings toward God? What evidence have we of his charity toward the failings of others? What evidences of charity for differing beliefs of others? What evidence of his patriotism? How does he regard his own popularity? Such questions and their answers point no personal moral, and it is entirely unnecessary to suggest one. When boys and girls perceive admirable traits in others they instinctively desire to possess those traits themselves. After reading the first few chapters of the Newcomes, a class once expressed the opinion, much to the dismay of their teacher, that Colonel Newcome was much too charitable and unsuspicious; too unworldly and easily imposed upon; it didn't pay to be so good. Nothing was said at the time to combat such an opinion, but the characters and events of the story were thoroughly discussed as the reading proceeded; and before the book was completed all agreed that the character of Colonel Newcome was admirable, and that they would rather be imposed upon and be as thoroughly lovable as he was than to be better able to protect themselves and more selfish and suspicious. Thus we shall find the generous minds of youth ready to accept the beautiful and the good, to love what is high and noble, and to reject with scorn the ignoble and the selfish. And the more they have opportunity to do this before each other in the class room the stronger will be the impression left upon them. We are dealing with a critical age, but it is a warm-hearted, a generous age, responding with enthusiasm to that which is worthy, and strongly condemnatory of evil.

VIII. Every selection studied, every lesson given, should have its definite pedagogical as well as its literary aim.

Not that we should develop any unwieldy philosophy to weight down our consciousness in the class room, but that we should always know what we hope to accomplish by what we are doing, and should work toward that purpose. Much of our English teaching has been fragmentary and patchy. We have aimed to give as many different styles as we could, and to introduce to as many authors as possible; but we have overlooked. the effect of this heterogeneous mass upon the mind of the stu


dent. He sees no purpose in the selection, has no idea why one thing is to be read more than another, and comes to take his dose as it is ordered him without much thought one way or the other. With a more definite purpose, and with a connecting thread of unity running through the list of selections, we should gain a more intelligent interest, and find less of a mere submission to task work. Anything which can make our teaching more thoughtful, more philosophic and more effective, without taking from it enthusiasm and spontaneity, ought to be cultivated. Let us thoroughly understand the ends to be sought for in each year's work, the results to be gained from each selection read, then carefully prepare each day's lesson so that these ends may be gained, and the interest and enthusiasm of the student may be awakened in connection with them; and our English course, now so greatly superior to what it has been in the past, will become stronger and more effective, fuller of real food for growing mind and thought.




HE recent attack upon institutions for the higher education of women, taking form in this instance in the charge that they are unproductive of matrimony, might well enough have been anticipated. Fifty years ago the idea of advanced training for women was scoffed at as absurd and impracticable; or, if neither of these, at least as unfortunate and much to be deplored. A half century has, however, made such education for girls who desire it a commonplace with most people. Thus colleges for young women have become a shining mark for that very numerous class of "smart" people who seek a reputation for insight and originality in attacks upon well established and generally accepted views. There is no more common or shabbier way of striving for effect than this. Disagreement with a popular belief is pretty sure to attract attention. It was not alone the Athenians who were ever eager to hear or to see some new thing. Novelty always has its charm, and the producer of that which is apparently new is sure to have his day, even though he may parade as his own the exploded views of

the past, or glitter in what examination proves to be tinsel, and of a very tawdry sort at that. Instances abound: Catiline has been proved the peer of Cicero; a vigorous defender has appeared for Nero; Judas is found to have been the noblest of the apostles; the virtues of Henry the Eighth, we are informed in these latter days, were those of a monk; democracy is dubbed a failure; while within a six-month an American gentlewoman has commanded an unmerited attention for her ill-balanced attack upon the public schools. Illustrations might be multiplied. The field is a wide one; for the public is constantly coming to conclusions, and he who runs counter to these is sure to be noticed, whether he be wise or a bumpkin. The man. who to-morrow will say with facile assurance that Aguinaldo is a finer patriot than Washington, or that Admiral Dewey is a nincompoop, will find himself in the public eye, and in the enjoyment of his notoriety will be in danger of forgetting that he is a fool. Thus the friends of higher education, and of the higher education of women in particular, may reasonably look for occasional assaults upon the schools; but if the charge be no more serious than that colleges for girls turn out future teachers, artists, physicians and authors, but not mothers, they need not be dismayed.

An attempt, however, has been made to meet this charge by two recent articles in the New York Independent: one by President Thwing, who discusses the question from the standpoint of colleges in general, admits that their influence is not favorable to at least early marriage, and rather regrets it; another, by Miss Jordan, of Smith College, in which the accusation is rather vaguely denied. Neither of these articles is wholly satisfactory. One is apologetic, and the other vague in a case where apology and vagueness are unfortunate. Let it be freely admitted that as a result of a college training, be the immediate reason what it may, graduates either marry late or do not marry at all. It is not presumptuous or insolent to ask, What of it?

Those who regard their case as made out against the college, when they have proved that its graduates are hesitant with regard to marriage, rest largely on the assumption that "the state of matrimony" is the normal condition of the sexes, and that, consequently, the moral health and strength of the State depend upon its general prevalence.

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