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enables us most clearly to see at will the contents of our pupils' minds and the process of their thought.

We have remarked that the quality of sympathy can be cultivated. How shall one who desires more of it proceed in order to secure it?

The first step is a determination that sympathetic relations shall be established. One may well feel that if they cannot be, she has mistaken her vocation. If they can be, they must be developed. Obviously the teacher must proceed to establish personal relations with her pupils on all occasions that naturally present themselves. A cheery good morning on first meeting one for the day; an allusion to home interests of which you may know; an inquiry about some school interest which you know to be uppermost in the child's heart; a stop upon the street for a word of greeting; a call at the child's home on occasion; the little note or the personal visit when sickness is giving anxiety or when death has entered the home; the chat with mother, or father, or big sister about the pupil, and such encouraging words as can truthfully be said,- these are incidental means. Sometimes time must be sacrificed and prejudices repressed. I know a teacher who dreads a gun as she does a mouse, but I found her once listening to a glowing description of a Maxim from a great hulking fellow whom she was encouraging to talk to her of the things he loves best. Sometimes it is a help to ask the pupils who wish to do so to write what they would like to do when they leave school, and why. I remember distinctly how close one letter of this kind brought teacher and pupil, a letter in which a sea-captain's daughter, just returned from a voyage to China with her father, wrote of her purpose to fit herself to live among the women and children of the East as a medical missionary- a purpose born of what she herself had seen. But these hints need not be prolonged. They are only special cases of the general process, child winning, in which every true woman needs only to resolve and persevere, to become an adept. If there is any secret about it, it is that we be sincerely friendly, and let the fact be patent.

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May I add a final word of caution? When the relation of sympathy is partially or wholly established, let it be sacredly preserved. By a single cross word you may lose a child. By

a single cross day - and who has not had them - you may lose the sympathy of your school for many days. It is a dangerous business to give way to petulance, or yield to selfishness with our children. We must be what we wish our children to be,— a truth that relates to character as completely as to manners. Says Bishop Huntington: "We are taught and we teach by something about us that never goes into language at all. I believe that often this is the very highest kind of teaching, most charged with moral power, most apt to go down among the secret springs of conduct, most effectual for vital issues, for the very reason that it is spiritual in its character, noiseless in its pretensions, and constant in its operations."

"In most situations in none more than in a school — what a man is tells for vastly more than what he says."


Or, The Relation of the White to the Colored Races.



HE civilization, now in seemingly rapid progress, of the modern world, is its essential Europeanization: whether by European colonization, conquest of arms, or simply the moral influence of Europe in politics, and the adoption of European customs, methods, ideas, that circumscribed and much indented territory occupying a corner of the Eastern or Old World-from a purely geographical point of view to be regarded as a mere peninsula extension of the great Eurasian continent rather than a continent in itself-is the land from which has gone forth a lawgiver to the rest of the earth; and the historic race having there its seat is fast becoming, if it be not practically such already, the dictator or arbiter of the destinies of all others.

Our United States, British India and Japan are respectively examples of these three forms of European ascendency abroad. In the first, by colonization, we see the bulk of the population of European origin, with the African type dwelling amidst it, quite Europeanized in his mode of life, in conformity therewith;

in India, the population remains Asiatic, but the strong arm of the Saxon holds the reins of political power; in Japan, remaining native both in population and government, we behold, to a regrettable degree, indeed, the rapid and sweeping occidentalization in fashion of attire and other respects which is making progress, though more slowly in other parts of the Orient. Australasia, South Africa and Russian Central Asia are similar examples of the irresistible advance of European empire.

A conquest so universal and many-sided as to method and result is unexampled in the eras of the human family preceding that of Columbus and Prince Henry the Navigator. That it is a condition pre-requisite to the higher elevation of mankind generally, resulting in the universal diffusion of knowledge, civil and religious liberty, the principles of humanitarianism, and material comforts and benefits, now so multiplied, would seem to admit of no question; notwithstanding that it has, like lesser conquests, been in its course attended with an appalling sum of cruelty, injustice and the manifestation of the worst elements of depraved human nature, the contemplation of which is heart-sickening even in view of the ultimate benefits thereby secured.

The key to this world-wide ascendency of the one race over all others lies, first, in the character of the former; second, in its vantage ground of material or scientific progress; and, third, in the fecundity which it has developed along with its civilization. The white man of Europe (for the white Oriental seems of quite another order,-more akin in mental genius to the darkskinned types) has, as a race, evinced great superiority over all others in intellectual development and moral force. His possession of vastly more effective arms and military tactics has been very important in giving him from the start that overwhelming advantage in his encounters with the aborigines of America and the savage, or half-civilized peoples of Africa and Asia, which modern history records, but is not its only explanation; for, although these latter have since learned the use, and largely employ against him the weapons of his own devising, he still continues to prevail over them, superior energy and finesse on the part of a European soldiery making it more than a match, and usually irresistible, when opposed to an African or

Asiatic army, even though the latter be provided with the most improved type of European arms.

These well-known facts are, doubtless, contributory if they be not the primary cause of that characteristic overweening hauteur and contempt so generally exhibited by the white race toward all darker-skinned types which are practically regarded by the former as a distinctly inferior creation, as well as naturalborn subjects and serviteurs; an estimate, indeed, in which some of the latter are found to more or less acquiesce, and to look upon the former with a counter estimate of exaltation. The simple natives of America, at first sight of white men, took them for gods or celestial visitants,-styled them "children of the sun"-and the equally simple African savages of to-day look upon the white man with awe as a supernatural being. Other non-European peoples, such as the Japanese, themselves somewhat too far advanced intellectually for such extreme and superstitious reverence, still practically admit the superiority of our race in following us as a guide and pattern. Thus would appear our European stock, more particularly of the haughty Anglo-Saxon and Teutonic branch, pretty well justified in its self-differentiation from the "colored" races, as of a different order of creation.

But in view of some equally patent facts, if we choose to regard them, this, our race attitude, is revealed with as little genuine support as any other form of exaggerated egoism, with which it is evidently to be classed. Conceding, as we may, that the white man, as a race, has evinced a general superiority to all others in the matter of intellectual ability and force of character, this, we shall be forced to admit, is not true in many individual cases. Instances of the reverse of this, wherein the white compares very unfavorably with the black or brown man in the qualities mentioned, are frequent enough to occasion comment, and to have more influence upon our opinions in the matter if we were disposed to allow them impartial weight. At the centers of our civilization, in the midst of our progressive western communities, despite the general diffusion of knowledge, there is much ignorance, imbecility and actual barbarism, its subjects being in multitudinous cases of undoubted European blood "uncontaminated" by any admixture with

African, Mongolian or other non-Aryan strain. On the other hand, instances are not a few of colored (using this term as convenient designation for all individuals not of unmixed European blood) men, and women also, of energy, intellect and culture who have raised themselves by these qualities,— often in face of much heavier odds than their Caucasian compeers to positions of eminence high over the heads of the masses of either race. In some of these the "mingled tide" of Europe and Africa, or America, flows in the veins; in others, so far as ascertainable, no European blood has lent its presence in imparting to these the qualities which it would fain arrogate to itself exclusively, but which, nevertheless, they have developed. It is hardly to be expected that such men should be impressed like their unsophisticated primitive forebears and confrères with the supernatural superiority of even the many ignorant, uncultured, or debased representatives of the Caucasian race with whose heterogeneous elements of individualitygood, bad and indifferent, high, low, noble and ignoble— they live in daily contact, and are fully competent to estimate, and that they should not bitterly feel the injustice of the sweeping discrimination which, on account of their race, condemns them, despite their abilities and talents, to a social position relatively lower than their undoubted inferiors of that more favored branch of the great human family.

It is far from true that all white men share in the pre-eminent intellectuality of their race; it is doubtful, indeed, if a majority do. That there are a larger proportion of individuals of superior intellectual ability of European than non-European stock is all that can be successfully affirmed; and that the large mass of the type assume to themselves a character and qualities found only in the leaders of European progress, and bask in a borrowed glory therefrom, is only an unprejudiced statement of the


Without going into other details which might be adduced here, we find in the history of our stock and its expansion throughout the earth the same essential elements of barbarism held to be characteristic of the red Indian, the black African and Solomon Islander, the tawny Malay and Arab, or the white but non-Aryan Turk. The medieval European presents

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