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for the Baptist Mission abroad. These devoted men sowed the seeds for the establishment of a Mission for the heathen AT HOME. Dr. Steadman and Mr. Saffrey of Salisbury, undertook an interesting tour for the Home Missionary Society. The work of visiting the dark villages originated with the Baptists in 1796. The expenses of the journey were defrayed out of the funds of the Baptist Missionary Society.

The income of this society for the year ending March, 1850, was £4,521 10s. 2d.

It has 107 central stations, 193 village stations, 107 missionaries and grantees, 4,417 members, about 23,000 hearers, 113 Sunday schools, 1,000 teachers, and about 75,000 scholars. Mr. T. B. Bousfield is the treasurer of this Mission.

The year 1803 saw the establishment of THE SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION, the formation of which and its subsequent advancement and efficiency are to be, in a great degree, ascribed to WILLIAM BRODIE GURNEY, ESQ. Its object is :

1.-"To stimulate and encourage Sunday school teachers, at home and abroad, to greater exertion in the promotion of religious education."

2.-"By mutual communication to improve the methods of instruction; to ascertain those situations where Sunday schools are most wanted, and promote their establishment."

3.--"To supply books and stationery suited for Sunday schools at reduced prices."

"In carrying out these objects the society shall not, in any way,

interfere with the private concerns of Sunday schools."

This interesting society has been found most useful in the promotion of the objects contemplated. It may also be mentioned that to the excellent Mr. Gurney may be mainly attributed the commencement of that extensively useful miscellany, The Youth's Magazine.

President, The Right Hon. THE EARL OF RODEN; treasurer, Mr. W. B. GURNEY.

In 1804, THE BIBLE SOCIETY was formed. The Baptists do not desire to claim originality for the early formation of some of the most important and useful institutions which flourish at the present period; but facts are recorded, and they speak for themselves. To JOSEPH HUGHES, the Baptist minister, must be ceded the distinguished honour of being THE FOUNDER OF THE BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY, and of being for many years its faithful and devoted secretary.

Mr. Hughes wrote an essay under the title of "The excellence of the Holy Scriptures,—an argument for their more general dispersion.” In this essay, which may be regarded as containing the rudiments of the future society, "the author expatiates on the transcendent excellence of the Holy Scriptures; enumerates the different religious societies more or less concerned in promoting their circulation; and describes the limitations of their respective constitutions, and their consequent inadequacy to the work of general distribution. Mr. Hughes then represents the importance of an association of Christians, with a view exclusively to the circulation of the Holy Scriptures, and points out a number of advantages, both direct and collateral, which might be expected to result from the operation of such an institution.

The wide circulation of this well-written essay led to the formation of the society, May 4, 1804, at the London Tavern, Bishopsgate Street; when it was agreed :—

1.-"That a society shall be formed with this designation, British and Foreign Bible Society, of which the sole object shall be to encourage a wide dispersion of the Holy Scriptures.

2. "This society shall add its endeavours to those employed by other societies for circulating the Scriptures through the British dominions, and shall also, according to its ability, extend its influence to other countries, whether Christian, Mahometan, and Pagan, &c."

The institution was considered as established, and more than £700 were immediately subscribed. "Thus terminated," says the Rev. John Owen, one of the secretaries, "the proceedings of this extraordinary day—a day memorable in the experience of all who participated in the transactions by which it was signalized; a day to which posterity will look back as giving to the world, and that in times of `singular perturbation and distress, an institution for diffusing on the grandest scale the tidings of peace and salvation; a day which will be recorded as peculiarly honourable to the character of Great Britain, and as fixing an important epoch in the history of mankind.”*

The objects of the society thus formed in 1804 is stated in its later operations to be "to encourage a wider circulation of the Holy Scriptures, without note or comment, the only copies in the language of the United Kingdom, to be circulated by the society, to be of the authorised version.

*The History of the Origin and first ten years of the British and Foreign Bible Society, by the Rev. John Owen, A.M., 1816, vol. 1, pp. 16-49.

That the efforts of that great Protestant association, THE BIBLE SOCIETY, is viewed with alarm by the Romanists, will be seen from the Papistical venom contained in the famous encyclical letter of Leo XII. "You are aware, venerable brethren, that a certain society, commonly called THE BIBLE SOCIETY, strolls with effrontery through the world contrary to the well-known decree of the Council of Trent, labours with all its might and by every means to translate, or rather to pervert, the Holy Bible into the vulgar tongue of every nation, from which proceeding it is greatly to be feared that what is ascertained to have happened as to some passages may occur to others, to wit, that by a perverse interpretation, the Gospel of Christ is turned into a human Gospel, and what is still worse, THE GOSPEL OF THE DEVIL!.... Venerable brethren, in conformity with our apostolical duty we exhort you to turn away your flocks by all means from these poisonous pastures."

Mr. JOHN BIRT (of Oldham) thus refers to the Bible Society, and his sentiments present a striking contrast to the popish profanation of Leo XII.:-"I feel my utter incompetency to speak in terms adequate to its opulence of mercy, greatness of strength, and exuberance of blessings. We may say of the stream which issues from it what Ezekiel said of the holy waters of the sanctuary-'Everything shall live whither the river cometh.' Well may the Church of Rome look with dismay and terror on that blaze of excellence, on those mighty operations; well may she fulminate her bulls and anathemas; but every device shall fail. The Pope may reiterate his incantations; he may proceed from hill to hill, and from altar to altar; but in the end he will have, like the son of Peor, to exclaim, 'HOW SHALL I CURSE, WHOM GOD HATH NOT CURSED? OR HOW SHALL I DEFY, WHOM THE LORD HATH NOT DEFIED?' By the prevalence of education the time will arrive when all shall be able to read the Bible; and, by the operation of Bible Societies, every one will have a Bible to read; and then shall the angel 'cry mightily with a strong voice, BABYLON THE GREAT IS FALLEN, IS FALLEN !!'"*

In 1850 the expenditure of the Bible Society was £103,543. Bibles issued from the commencement of the institution 9,315,504; Testaments, 14,932,163. Total from 1804, 24,247,667.

The desirableness of a recognized medium for the Baptists by which their principles and operations might be fairly represented, was felt by the Baptist body. Dr. Rippon published, at uncertain intervals, his BAPTIST ANNUAL REGISTER, in four volumes, which was commenced

* Lectures upon the Principles and History of Popery, &c., pp. 167-168.

in 1790 and terminated in 1802, and contained much interesting intelligence; but a more regular and stated periodical was required, and, in 1809, THE BAPTIST MAGAZINE was commenced,,-a periodical which is considered the organ of the denomination. It is not too much to say, that it does not receive that support from the denomination which its object deserves, viz., the devotion of the profits to widows of Baptist ministers.

At the meeting of ministers and messengers of Baptist Churches, held at Carter-lane, Southwark, Dr. RIPPON in the chair, the following recommendatory resolution was passed, 24th June, 1813, relative to this Magazine. "That THE BAPTIST MAGAZINE, furnishing a most desirable medium of communication respecting the state of our churches at home, and providing a more sea sonable aid to necessitous widows of deceased ministers, to which purpose the whole of the profits are applied, is highly deserving the encouragement of the denomination, and that it be recommended to all our ministers and churches to promote the circulation of it to the utmost of their power."

Is it creditable to the denomination, said to comprise near 2,000 churches, containing nearly 200,000 members, and with its congregational members, amounting altogether to more than half a million, that from the limited circulation of this periodical, the grants to widows for the year ending June 25, 1850, were only £85.

It is with much regret that this reference is made, and it remains to be seen what will be the result of the united appeals to the denomination by the esteemed treasurer of the Magazine fund, Mr. Joseph Tritton, and Mr. W. B. Gurney, in December Magazine of 1850.

The increased circulation of this Magazine is a minister's question— its profits are for minister's widows; and that there is a want of zeal amongst the Baptist churches, in an endeavour suitably to extend the circulation of the Magazine, is too manifest. With the number of members, both church and congregational above mentioned-the number of Sunday school teachers connected with Baptist churches, and with a due regard to the object contemplated, there is no reason why a sum ten times greater in amount than at present derived might not be distributed amongst the widows and orphans of Baptist ministers. This Magazine is under the able editorship of Mr. William Groser, and its concerns are managed by a committee composed of leading ministers and members of the London Baptist churches.*

*"THE CHURCH," an interesting and cheap Monthly Miscellany, advocates Baptist sentiments, and has an extensive circulation.

THE BAPTIST UNION was formed in 1813. Its objects are1. To extend brotherly love and union among those Baptist ministers and churches who agree in the sentiments usually denominated evangelical.

2. To promote unity and exertion in whatever way may best serve the cause of Christ in general, and the interest of the

Baptist denomination in particular.

3. To obtain accurate statistical information relative to Baptist churches, societies, institutions, colleges, &c., throughout the kingdom and the world at large.

4.-To prepare for circulation an annual report of the proceedings of the union, and the state of the denomination.

In the Annual Report of the proceedings of the Baptist Union, contained in THE BAPTIST MANUAL, will be found interesting information relative to the advancement of the Baptist denomination. It should receive an extensive circulation amongst the Baptist Churches.

In the later Reports, discourses have been published, delivered at annual meetings, held at the Baptist Mission House in London. In 1849, by Mr. T. Morgan of Birmingham. An Address to the Committee; subject, Their Duties and Encouragements.

In 1850, by Dr. Godwin; subject, The present position and duties of the Baptist denomination.

In 1851, by Mr. E. B. Underhill; subject, The distinguishing features of the Baptist denomination.

Mr. George Lowe, treasurer; secretaries, Dr. Steine and John Howard Hinten, M.A.

THE BAPTIST IRISH SOCIETY was formed in 1814. Its object is the diffusion of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, principally by the employment of missionaries and readers in Ireland; the establishment of schools, and the distribution of bibles and tracts. Its expenditure in 1850 was £4,126 19s. 9d. An interesting report of the operations of this useful society is given in the Baptist Magazine for May, 1850. Its treasurer is Mr. Joseph Tritton. This society will receive efficient aid from the zealous efforts of Mr. W. Groser, who has recently entered upon the duties of secretary to the society.

There is a Benevolent Society which deserves notice, entitled "THE BATH SOCIETY FOR AGED MINISTERS," established 1816, having for its object the relief of those Baptist ministers who have become beneficial members, in conformity with the rules, when they appear to be permanently incapacitated for pastoral or ministerial duties by reason of age or infirmity. Treasurer, Mr. Joseph Leonard Philips, of Melksham, Wilts.

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