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time for their sowing of maize was governed by the budding of some particular tree, and by the visits of a certain fish to their waters, -both which events observation had proved to be such regular indicators of the season, as fully to warrant the faith which was placed on their recurrence. These simple and untaught people discovered and practised a method of preserving their grain after harvest, which afforded a certain protection against the ravages of insects, and which might be advantageously adopted in other situations, and in climates where this evil is very prevalent. Their method was to separate the corn from the cobb as soon as the harvest was finished; to dry it tho. roughly by exposure to the sun, and to a current of air; and then to deposit it in holes dug out of the earth in dry situations, lining these holes with mats of dried grass, and covering them with earth, so as completely to prevent the access of air.

With the exception of artificial irrigation, to which recourse is not had in the United States, the method of sowing and managing maize is there singularly analogous to that pursued in Mexico. The proportionate produce, from a given quantity of seed or a certain breadth of land, is smaller, however, than that realized in Mexico, although the practice of manuring is universally followed. As compared with the yielding of other kinds of grain, maize cultivation is, nevertheless, highly productive in the United States. In Pennsylvania, where the average crop of wheat does not exceed from fourteen to seventeen bushels, that of maize amounts to from twenty to thirty bushels to the acre.

The second variety of maize has white grains. This kind, which is cultivated in Spain, Portugal, and Lombardy, is altogether a smaller plant than the variety just described, seldom exceeding six or seven feet in height; the leaves are narrower, and the tops hang downwards. The ears or spikes are not more than six or seven inches long. The French, among whom this grain is partially cultivated, have given to it the name of Blé de Turquie, doubtless because their seed was originally obtained from that country.

The third variety has both yellow and white seeds. It is even smaller than the last mentioned, seldom rising to a greater height than four feet: the ears do not often exceed four or five inches in length. In ordinary seasons, it will ripen its grains perfectly in England; and one reason why it has been presumed that its cultivation would prove advantageous to this country, is the shortness of time required for its growth, whereby the late frosts to which we are

sometimes liable in spring, and the early frosts of autumn, would be alike avoided.

Captain Lyon, in the narrative of his travels in Mexico, has given an amusing account of the mode of preparing tortillas, a species of cake made with the crushed grains of maize, which is eaten hot at the meals of all classes of people, the more wealthy using the cakes in the way we are accustomed to use wheaten bread,-as an auxiliary to more nourishing aliments-and the peasants being fain to enjoy them as a substantive food, seasoning them, when they have the opportunity, by the addition of chilies stewed into a kind of sauce, wherein the tortillas are dipped.

The various uses to which the maize plant and grain may be applied cannot perhaps be better enumerated than in the words of Dr. Franklin:

"It is remarked in North America, that the English farmers, when they first arrive there, finding a soil and climate proper for the husbandry they have been accustomed to, and particularly suitable for raising wheat, they despise and neglect the culture of maize or Indian corn; but observing the advantage it affords their neighbours, the older inhabitants, they by degrees get more and more into the practice of raising it; and the face of the country shows that the culture of that grain goes on visibly augmenting.

"The inducements are the many different ways in which it may be prepared so as to afford a wholesome and pleasing_nourishment to men and other animals. First, the family can begin to make use of it before the time of full harvest; for the tender green ears, stripped of their leaves, and roasted by a quick fire till the grain is brown, and eaten with a little salt or butter, are a delicacy. Secondly, when the grain is riper and harder, the ears, boiled in their leaves and eaten with butter, are also good and agreeable food. The tender green grains dried may be kept all the year, and, mixed with green haricots (kidney beans), also dried, make at any time a pleasing dish, being first soaked some hours in water, and then boiled. When the grain is ripe and hard there are also several ways of using it. One is to soak it all night in a lessive or lye, and then pound it in a large wooden mortar with a wooden pestle; the skin of each grain is by that means skinned off, and the farinaceous part left whole, which being boiled swells into a white soft pulp, and eaten with milk, or with butter and sugar, is delicious. The dry grain is also sometimes ground loosely, so as to be broken into pieces of the size of rice, and being winnowed to separate the bran, it is then boiled and eaten with turkies or other fowls, as rice. Ground

into a finer meal, they make of it, by boiling, a hasty pudding or bouilli, to be eaten with milk, or with butter and sugar; this resembles what the Italians call polenta. They make of the same meal, with water and salt, a hasty cake, which being stuck against a hoe or other flat iron, is placed erect before the fire, and so baked to be used as bread. Broth is also agreeably thickened with the same meal. They also parch it in this manner:-An iron pot is filled with sand, and set on the fire till the sand is very hot. Two or three pounds of the grain are then thrown in, and well mixed with the sand by stirring. Each grain bursts and throws out a white substance of twice its bigness. The sand is separated by a wire sieve, and returned into the pot to be again heated and repeat the operation with fresh grain. That which is parched is pounded to a powder in mortars. This being sifted will keep long for use. An Indian will travel far and subsist long on a small bag of it, taking only six or eight ounces of it per day mixed with water. The flour of maize, mixed with that of wheat, makes excellent bread, sweeter and more agreeable than that of wheat alone. To feed horses, it is good to soak the grain twelve hours; they mash it easier with their teeth, and it yields them more nourishment."

The late William Cobbett, in his Treatise on Cobbett's Corn,' as he chose to designate the Maize when he endeavoured to force its cultivation in this country, earnestly recommended it as food to be preferred

to any other for man, as well as for animals and poultry. There can be no doubt, however, that our climate is unfitted for its growth, and it will be far more productive of national benefit that we should be allowed to purchase it where it can be most cheaply produced; nor that generally we shall apply it to the support and fattening of animals, and continue ourselves to use wheaten bread as a principal food, though, as an agreeable variety, or in case of need as an excellent substitute, adopting some of the preparations known in America as suppawn, mush, homany, and samp. Suppawn is prepared from the maize flour, in the same manner as gruel, with either water or milk, or, like the Scottish brose, with broth or pot-liquor. Mush is a composition somewhat more resembling the Scotch porridge or the English hasty-pudding, and is also mixed with either milk or water, and is eaten hot or cold, and frequently with the addition of milk in a separate vessel, into which the spoon with a little of the mush is dipped, and some milk added. This is called mush and milk, and resembles the Scotch porridge and milk. Homany varies but little from mush, and forms a principal part of the food of the negroes in the Southern States. Samp is prepared much like our pea-soup; the grains are hardened and skinned, and then boiled with pork or any other meat. The meal also is formed into very pleasant-eating cakes, and, mixed with wheat-flour, makes very good bread.

SHREDS OF THE PAST. [BIOGRAPHICAL ANECDOTES.]

ONE of the most amusing books, full of odd gossip, is old Aubrey's Notices of eminent men, which were published in 1813, from manuscripts in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. These scraps were furnished by the writer in 1680 to Ântony à-Wood, when he was compiling his Lives of celebrated men of Oxford. Aubrey, in a letter to his brother antiquary, says: "I have, according to your desire, put in writing these minutes of lives tumultuarily, as they occurred to my thoughts, or as occasionally I had information of them. They may easily be reduced into order at your leisure by numbering them with red figures, according to time and place, &c. 'Tis a task that I never thought to have undertaken till you imposed it upon me, saying that I was fit for it, by reason of my general acquaintance, having now not

only lived above half a century of years in the world, but have also been much tumbled up and down in it; which hath made me so well known. Besides the modern advantage of coffee-houses in this great city; before which men knew not how to be acquainted, but with their own relations or societies: I might add that I come of a longævous race, by which means I have wiped some feathers off the wings of Time for several generations, which does reach high."

SIR MILES FLEETWOOD (RECORDER OF LONDON),

"Was of the Middle Temple; was Recorder of London when King James came into England. Made this harangue to the city of London: When I consider your wealth, I do admire your wisdom; and when

I consider your wisdom, I do admire your wealth.' It was a two-handed rhetorication, but the citizens took it in the best sense. He was a very severe hanger of highwaymen, so that the fraternity were resolved to make an example of his worship, which they executed in this manner :-They lay in wait for him not far from Tyburn, as he was to come" from his house at in Bucks; had a halter in readiness; brought him under the gallows, fastened the rope about his neck, his hands tied behind him (and servants bound), and then' left him to the mercy of his horse, which he called Ball. So he cried, 'Ho, Ball! ho, Ball!' and it pleased God that his horse stood still till somebody came along, which was half a quarter of an hour or more. He ordered that this horse should be kept as long as he would live, which was He lived till 1646."

So.

DR. WILLIAM HARVEY.

"He was always very contemplative, and the first that I hear of that was curious in anatomy in England. He had made dissections of frogs, toads, and a number of other animals, and had curious observations ou them, which papers, together with his goods, in his lodgings at Whitehall, were plundered at the beginning of the Rebellion; he being for the king, and with him at Oxon. But he often said, that of all the losses he sustained, no grief was so crucifying to him as the loss of those papers, which for love or money he could never retrieve or obtain. When King Charles I. by reason of the tumults left London, he attended him, and was at the fight of Edge-hill with him; and during the fight the Prince and Duke of York were committed to his care. He told me that he withdrew with them under a hedge, and took out of his pocket a book and read; but he had not read very long before a bullet of a great gun grazed on the ground near him, which made him remove his station. He told me

that Sir Adrian Scrope was dangerously wounded there, and left for dead amongst the dead men, stript; which happened to be the saving of his life. It was cold, clear weather, and a frost that night; which staunched his bleeding, and about midnight, or some hours after his hurt, he awaked, and was fain to draw a dead body upon him for warmth sake.

"I have heard him say, that after his book of the 'Circulation of the Blood' came out he fell mightily in his practice, and 'twas believed by the vulgar that he was crackbrained; and all the physicians were against his opinion, and envied him. With much ado at last, in about twenty or thirty years' time, it was received in all the Universities

in the world: and, as Mr. Hobbes says in his book De Corpore,' he is the only man, perhaps, that ever lived to see his own doctrine established in his life-time."

MR. WILLIAM LEE

"Was of Oxon (I think, Magdalen Hall). He was the first inventor of the weaving of stockings by an engine of his contrivance. He was a Sussex man born, or else lived there. He was a poor curate, and observing how much pains his wife took in knitting a pair of stockings, he bought a stocking and a half, and observed the contrivance of the stitch, which he designed in his loom, which (though some of the instruments of the engine be altered) keeps the same to this day. went into France, and there died before his loom was made there. So the art was not long since in no part of the world but England. Oliver Protector made an act that it should be felony to transport this engine. This information I took from a weaver (by this engine) in Pear-poole-lane, 1656. Sir J. Hoskyns, Sir Stafford Tyndal, and I went purposely to see it."

HENRY MARTIN.

He

"His speeches in the House were not long, but wondrous poignant, pertinent, and witty. He was exceeding happy in apt instances; he alone hath sometimes turned the whole House. Making an invective speech one time against old Sir Henry Vane, when he had done with him he said,' But for young Sir Harry Vane,'-and so sat him down. Several cried out,- What have you to say to young Sir Harry?' He rises up: Why, if young Sir Harry lives to be old, he will be old Sir Harry!' and so sat down, and set the whole house a laughing, as he oftentimes did. Oliver Cromwell once in the House called him, jestingly or scoffingly, Sir Harry Martin. H. M. rises and bows,

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I thank your Majesty; I always thought when you were king, that I should be knighted. A godly member made a motion to have all profane and unsanctified persons expelled the House. H. M. stood up, and moved that all the fools might be put out likewise, and then there would be a thin House. He was wont to sleep much in the House (at least dog-sleep). Ald. Atkins made a motion that such scandalous members as slept and minded not the business of the House, should be put out. H. M. starts up: Mr. Speaker, a motion has been made to turn out the Nodders; I desire the Noddees may also be turned out.' JOHN MILTON.

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"He was a spare man. He was an early riser, sc. at four o'clock manè, yea, after

he lost his sight. He had a man read to him. The first thing he read was the Hebrew Bible, and that was at 4 h. manè h.+ then he contemplated. At 7 his man came to him again, and then read to him and wrote till dinner; the writing was as much as the reading. His second daughter, Deborah, could read to him Latin, Italian, and French, and Greek. She married in' Dublin to one Mr. Clarke (a mercer, sells silk); very like her father. The other sister is Mary, more like her mother. After dinner he used to walk three or four hours at a time (he always had a garden where he lived); went to bed about nine. Temperate, rarely drank between meals. Extreme pleasant in his conversation, and at dinner, supper, &c., but satirical. He pronounced the letter R very hard. He had a delicate tuneable voice, and had good skill. His father instructed him. He had an organ in his house; he played on this most. His exercise was chiefly walking. He was visited by the learned much more than he did desire. He was mightily importuned to go into France and Italy; foreigners came much to see him, and much admired him, and offered to him great preferments to come over to them, and the only inducement of several foreigners that came over into England was chiefly to see C. Protector, and Mr. J. Milton; and would see the house and chamber where he was born. He was much more admired abroad than at home.

"John Dryden, Esq., Poet Laureate, who very much admired him, and went to him to have leave to put his Paradise Lost into a drama in rhyme. Mr. Milton received him civilly, and told him he would give him leave to tag his verses."

SIR THOMAS MORE.

"His country-house was at Chelsea, in Middlesex, where Sir John Danvers built his house. The chimney-piece of marble, in Sir John's chamber, was the chimneypiece of Sir Thomas More's chamber, as Sir John himself told me. Where the gate is now, adorned with two noble pyramids, there stood anciently a gate-house, which was flat on the top, leaded, from whence is a most pleasant prospect of the Thames and the fields beyond; on this place the Lord Chancellor More was wont to recreate himself, and contemplate. It happened one time, that a Tom of Bedlam came up to him and had a mind to have thrown him from the battlements, saying, Leap, Tom, leap.' The Chancellor was in his gown, and besides ancient, and not able to struggle with such a strong fellow. My Lord had a little

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Popham, of

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the county of Somerset. He was of the Society of , and for several years addicted himself but little to the study of the laws, but profligate company, and was wont to take a purse with them. His wife considered her and his condition, and at last prevailed with him to lead another life, and to stick to the study of the law, which, upon her importunity, he did, being then about thirty years old. He spake to his wife to provide a very good entertainment for his comrades to take his leave of them; and after that day fell extremely hard to his study, and profited exceedingly. He was a strong, stout man, and could endure to sit at it day and night; became eminent in his calling, had good practice, called to be a serjeant-a judge."

SIR WALTER RALEIGH.

"He was the first that brought tobacco into England, and into fashion. In our part of North Wiltshire, Malmesbury hundred, -it came first into fashion by Sir Walter Long. They had first silver pipes. The ordinary sort made use of a walnut-shell and a straw. I have heard my grandfather Lyte say, that one pipe was handed from man to man round the table. Sir W. R. standing in a stand at Sir R. Poyntz' park at Acton, took a pipe of tobacco, which made the ladies quit it till he had done. Within these thirty-five years it was scandalous for a divine to take tobacco. It was sold then for its weight in silver. I have heard some of our old yeoman neighbours say, that when they went to Malmesbury or Chippenham market, they culled out their biggest shillings to lay in the scales against the tobacco; now, the customs of it are the greatest his majesty hath."

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