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first six are well formed and show the characteristic pattern produced by attrition. The seventh tooth is large and well formed, but only the anterior border is worn away, the remaining portion of the tooth projecting above the general level and showing elevations and depressions found on an ordinary unworn molar tooth. The mandible of the animal could not be found, and Mr. Bradley considers that in all probability there were no supernumerary teeth, from the fact that the posterior portion of the last molar in the maxilla was not worn down; the wearing down of the anterior portion of this tooth being easily accounted for by the last molar in the mandible always extending a little further back than the corresponding tooth in the maxilla. In discussing the significance of the supernumerary teeth, he does not consider that they can be regarded as unusually well-developed first premolars-teeth which in the horse are normally rudimentary. That the extra teeth may be regarded as a reversion towards some ancestral form in which there were normally four molars he does not consider likely, for ancestors with four molars must be very far removed from the modern horse, and reversion does not take place towards forms palæontologically remote. He considers the most feasible conclusion is to regard the supernumerary teeth merely as variations, resulting from a more than usually extensive backward prolongation of the dental lamina, and the formation from it of one. dental germ in excess of the normal number.

A second interesting specimen in the form of an anencephalic calf is described by Mr. Bradley. Projecting from what should have been the region of the forehead was a short fronto-nasal process. From the most anterior part of this process the tips of two teeth projected through the mucous membrane. The condition may reasonably be regarded as an instance of reversion towards an ancestor provided with a fuller complement of teeth than is present in the modern Bovida. A reference to several papers dealing with the embryology of the pre-maxillary region of the ruminants is given by the author.

In the same issue of the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, G. Elliot Smith describes a skull of a man, about 30 years of age, found in a cemetery in Upper Egypt. The maxilla contains a supernumerary tooth situated between the central incisors. There is also an interesting paper by Dr. Marett Tims "On the Succession and Homologies of Molar and Pre-molar teeth in the Mammalia."

A SUGGESTIVE series of articles have been appearing in our excellent little contemporary, Nursing Notes, on "Oral Hygiene and Dental Surgery for Nurses," by Mr. Sydney Harrison, L.D.S., containing practical hints for hospital and private nurses on the care of their own mouths, and their dental responsibilies to patients. Mr. Harrison. intimates, we think quite reasonably, that many highly trained, pains

taking nurses may fail, through want of impressive instruction, to appreciate the importance of dental toilette to the comfort and chances of recovery in weak and helpless patients. We quote the conclusion of Mr. Harrison's article for this month :

"When a patient is unable to perform the cleansing personally the nurse must undertake it with infinite gentleness and care, remembering that any discomfort arising will not be due to the method adopted but to her own faulty manipulation. It may be done in two ways; either using a lint pad, or by means of a fine nozzled syringe. In the former, small rolls of lint held in a sponge holder, or dressing forceps, being dipped in the solution, are gently introduced into the mouth and the surfaces of the teeth, gums and tongue, carefully wiped, removing all débris and vitiated secretions.

"When there is any ulceration or tenderness about the lips or mouth the latter method is better, though a combination of the two is perhaps more successful than either.

"The brief remarks here made regarding the care which should be taken to preserve the teeth, will prove effectual providing they are not, at the start, in a neglected and septic condition; but if they be so the aid of a dental practitioner should be sought, and the mouth rendered thoroughly healthy and sweet under his direction, when every confidence may be placed in this treatment to reduce future dental trouble to a minimum, and the so often wished for third dentition unnecessary.'

WHERE the specialisation of specialities may lead can hardly be foreseen, and we even await the prophesied eminent rhinologist devoted to the left nostril. That dental surgery admits of much division of labour without detriment is unquestionable; but the swing of the pendulum may well be too far. It appears that the Orthodontist has already arrived in America, and that there is a Society, of two years' standing, meeting at about this time in Philadelphia. The president is Dr. Cryer, and no less than a dozen special communications are announced, including one from our colleague, Mr. W. Booth Pearsall.

The subject, of course, is of great importance, but it is a distressing evidence of the prevalence of deformity and anomalies of development calling for complicated appliances, "systems," and methods "immediate," or much deferred. A special report of a Committee on Orthodontia, and a paper on the current literature of the subject, as presented and discussed at the American National Association (Southern Branch), are reported in the Cosmos for last month.

IN abstracting upon another page a translation of a short article upon bromide of ethyl from an Italian contemporary, we should

perhaps fail in our duty to our readers if we did not remind them that by anæsthetists in this country bromethyl is generally regarded as one of the least satisfactory agents for narcosis. The observations of Dr. Lorentz, from what we gather, do not appear to us exhaustive or profound from either a clinical or physiological point of view; but investigations in this field are always of interest and entitled to respect; for as Sir Michael Foster is reported to have lately said, "It takes a lot of courage." We need hardly add that in England dental practitioners, while seeking a knowledge of the respective merits and limitations of means of anesthesia, wisely leave these grave responsibilities to the experienced expert.

COMPANY promotion is a high art in which the latitude permissible by statute in defining "objects" is largely availed of by skilful draughtsmen as to the powers claimed by Articles of Association. A refreshing instance of engaging candour occurs in the preamble of a Company lately registered with offices not a hundred miles from Hanover Square. Among the objects stated are: "to oppose Bills in Parliament or otherwise in matters affecting the profession of dentists, &c."

Discellanea.

Benevolent Fund.

New subscriptions received, September, 1902 :-
S. P. Johnson, 65, St. John's Terrace, Hove
A. G. Peck, 6, Brunswick Place, Hove

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S. H. Olver, 41, Devonshire Street, Portland Place, W. (per Walter Harrison)

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The Endowment of Research.

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THE Odontological Society of Great Britain has sent out to the Dental and Medical Schools in the United Kingdom, the Universities and the Research Laboratories, a notice calling attention to grants in aid of scientific research in connection with dentistry, which are offered by the Society. The regulations made by the Council, and forms of application, with any desired particulars, can be obtained on application to the Hon. Sec. of the Scientific Research Committee, Odontological Society, 20, Hanover Square, London, W.

Charing Cross Hospital Medical School.

The following entrance scholarships have been awarded :—
The Livingstone Scholarship (100 guineas) to Mr. W. S. Fenwick,

the Huxley Scholarship (55 guineas) to Mr. E. Quirk, an Universities Scholarship (72 guineas) to Mr. R. K. Shepherd.

Entrance Scholarships have also been awarded to Mr. F. Butler (60 guineas), Mr. T. Hallinan (40 guineas), Mr. F. E. Sprawson (30 guineas), and Universities Exhibitions (each 36 guineas), to Mr. J. W. Evans and Mr. R. S. Taylor.

High Frequency Electric Analgesia.

In the Comptes Rendus of the French Academy of Science, cxxxiv., pp. 373-375, 1902, MM. L. R. Regnier and H. Didsbury, advise the employment of high frequency currents of high potential, for inducing anææsthesia in operations on the teeth. A d'Arsonval or Tesla apparatus with Oudin's resonator is used. One electrode is roughly moulded to fit a tooth, and lined with wet abestos to counteract heating effects. When not complicated with periostitis or inflammation, five minutes suffice to render an incisor insensible. Molars require a longer time; and the experiments of MM. Regnier and Didsbury, while only in the early stages, give promise of some practical applications.

Recent Radiography.

E. W. H. Shenton, in the Röntgen Ray Archives, vi., pp. 62-70, March, gives an interesting description of the surgico-medical routine in radiography carried out at Guy's Hospital, with an eye to simplicity, efficiency and the safety of the patient. The need is emphasised of plenty of light, and the comparative practical unimportance of "6 definition."

H. Walsham, in the same, pp. 70-74, has a paper read by him at the Röntgen Society, June 6, 1901, in which a radiograph revealed the existence of aneurysms of the aorta, which were not diagnosed in the ordinary way. These can often be plainly seen by screen illumination; and the author considers this should never be omitted in cases of doubtful chest disease. Eighteen illustrations are given.

In the Electrical Review of New York, xxxix., pp. 601-603, E. W. Caldwell describes a means of obtaining a stereoscope image in the fluoroscope, by using two tubes, or a Röntgen-ray tube with a double focus.

THE Second Congress of Medical Electrology and Radiology has just been concluded at Berne. The principal questions discussed were those of the "dosage" or measurement of electric current (whether by ampères or by voltage), intensity and duration of discharges, rays, &c. The diagnostic and therapeutic action of X-rays, and their estimation by means of salts which changed colour on

exposure to the radiations, the surgical uses of electrolysis and galvanocautery, and the dangers and accidents incidental to electric treatment and the employment of powerful currents industrially, were exhaustively considered.

The Congress will next meet in 1905 at Amsterdam.

THE Society of Professors of Dentistry of the German Universities, which is presided over by Dr. Miller, of Berlin, has again addressed a petition to the Federal Council, the text of which is as follows: "That the candidates for the diploma of dental surgeon shall not be permitted to take the examinations if they are not holders of a certificate of maturité, and that the permission to substitute two semesters of study at the university by an apprenticeship of one year at a dentist's office shall be suppressed, and that all the studies which are part of the dental curriculum shall be pursued at the university."

DR. SIM WALLACE, in a letter to the current British Medical Journal, returns to the question of the relation of nasal stenosis and want of lingual and muscular development to maxillary deformity. He considers that opinion is being modified as against the potency of heredity in favour of the view that the tongue and muscles of mastication are greatly concerned in the expansion of the maxillæ and alveolus.

In a note to the Royal Society on May 15, Mr. Walter Rosenhain shows that perfectly pure platinum, when exposed to high temperatures, after cold working, may assume a highly crystalline structure, even when carbon or other contamination is rigidly excluded.

WE are pleased to note that our confrère Dr. Cruet, the Editor of La Revue de Stomatologie, and dentist to la Charité, has been decorated as Chevalier of the Legion of Honour.

DR. MILLER, of Berlin, has received the Honorary Degree of D.Sc. of the University of Pennsylvania.

Of honours to our profession further afield, we learn through our exchange the Zoobovrachebny Vestnik (Dentists' Messenger), of St. Petersburg, that the Emir of Bukhara has decorated his dentist, Dr. Gorashchenko, of Yalta, with the Golden Star of the third degree.

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