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International Dental Federation.
We learn respecting the next meeting of the International Dental Federation (some account of whose recent deliberations we give in our report of International meetings at Stockholm), that an invitation has been given by the American National Dental Association, lately meeting at Niagara Falls, and accepted by the International Federation, to unite with the National Association in meeting at St. Louis, Mo., U.S.A., in August, 1904, as a Fourth International Dental Congress, in connection with the Louisiana Purchase Exposition to be held that year.
THE 30th of September saw the friends of the Victoria Dental Hospital assembled at Owens College for the Annual Prize Distribution, which partook of the nature of a soirée with an address by the present acting Dean, Professor William Stirling, M.D., D.Sc. Professor Young, the Dean, old students of Owens will regret to hear, has been seriously ill for several months, but seems now on a fair way to recovery, though unable yet to discharge his duties at the College.
Dr. Cox presided, and in his opening remarks emphasised the importance of the examination of the teeth of the young at our public schools, &c., and lamented on the deplorable state of the Army arrangements for the necessary treatment of our soldiers' teeth as evidenced in the late war.
The Dean of the Dental School, Mr. W. Simms, read his annual report, and from it we learn there are at present 37 students at the Hospital, and 10 during the last year were successful in obtaining their L.D.S.
Professor Stirling then gave his address, and as he said the date of our meeting coincided with that on which the value of sulphuric ether as an anæsthetic was first demonstrated by W. T. G. Morton in 1846, he took for his theme the History of the Introduction of Anæsthetics, giving graphic portraitures of the great men to whom we are indebted for anæsthetics—“ that glorious conquest for humanity," as Oliver Wendell Holmes says; and as was to be expected from such a master in the art of demonstrating the principles of physiology, showed in striking manner to his audience the superiority of drugs inhaled to those internally administered for potency in rapidity of action. The address was most enthusiastically received, and made additionally attractive by a charming souvenir which the professor presented to each person present, giving the names and dates of the pioneers in anæsthetics and some illustrations culled from old prints, amongst which were those of Nicolaus Stenonius, 1638-1686, John Hunter, 1728-1793, and the old Dutch painting by Gerard Douw of the Tooth Drawer, &c., enriched by suitable quotations from the classics. In addition, Professor Stirling had displayed his valuable collection of old works on medical and allied sciences, and many curious 16th. 17th, and 18th century books were on view, many containing the works and
portraits of men who to us are only names associated with their discoveries or researches. Afterwards the prizes were distributed to the successful students, who were as follows:
VICTORIA DENTAL HOSPITAL.-Fletcher Prizes: Senior, J. H. Rodway; Junior, E. W. Fieldhouse. Operating Prize: T. M. Hughes. Ash Prize: G. W. Barlow. Regulating Prize: G. W. Barlow. Extracting Prizes: Senior, R. B. Hunter and J. W. Whitworth, equal; Junior, E. W. Fieldhouse; Prizes in Prosthetic Dentistry: Senior, S. Harlock; Junior, J. W. Hindle.
OWENS COLLEGE PRIZES.- Dental Surgery: G. W. Barlow. Dental Anatomy: J. H. Rodway. Dental Histology: R. B. Hunter. Operative Dentistry: First Prize, W. B. Dougan; Second Prize, G. W. Barlow. Mechanical Dentistry: First Prize, W. Hopton; Second Prize, E. W. Fieldhouse. Dental Metallurgy : W. A. Clements.
On October 7 the Manchester Odontological Society inaugurated its 17th session, when Mr. A. B. Wolfenden (Halifax) gave his presidential address, urging the importance of the care of the teeth of the young, and suggesting a scheme of inspection in the public schools somewhat similar to that in some places in regard to ophthalmic and other branches of medicine, and incidentally referred to the remarks of Mr. Parker Smith, M.P., who, in the discussion in Parliament on the Education Bill, emphasised the desirability of such an examination of the teeth of school children.
During the meeting the Dental Manufacturing Co. had an interesting display of dental goods.
Reviews and Motices of Books.
AIDS TO DENTAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. By ARTHUR S. UNDERWOOD, M.R.C.S., L. D.S. Price 2s. 6d. Messrs. Baillière, Tindall, and Cox, London. 1902.
THE second edition of this little book has just been issued. It forms, as before, one of the publishers' "Students' Aid Series." The author, in the preface, says: "It is practically a new book. Not only has almost all of it been re-written, and brought up to date, but the scope of the work has been enlarged to embrace, and it is hoped to aid in, the study of dental anatomy generally."
In its present form it has undergone a change of title (the first edition being called " Aids to Dental Histology"); comprises 124 foolscap 8vo. pages; and, in a simple, lucid, and interesting manner, sets forth many of the important facts connected with the subject. It is an unpretentious effort "to render the study of larger text-books easier and more satisfactory."
"QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS" EMBRACING THE CURRICULUM OF THE DENTAL STUDENT. By FERDINAND GORGAS, M.D., D.D.S. Rebman, Ltd. 1902. Pp. 531. 25s. nett.
THE method adopted in this work of presenting the whole of the curriculum of the dental student in the form of question and answer
is not, to our way of thinking at any rate, a satisfactory means of imparting knowledge; and when, moreover, the questions themselves are followed by singularly unenlightening and often inaccurate answers, we cannot regard the book as anything better than a most unsatisfactory attempt at cramming.
Thus, to quote a few of the questions and answers, we may mention : 2. "What is protoplasm?" A. "A soft, greatly distensible semifluid substance." Q. "What is the blastoderm?" A. "A membrane made up of a large number of cells."
Again we read: Q. "How is nitrous oxide administered?" A. 'Same care should be observed as with either ether or chloroform. Seat patient in a horizontal' position in an operating chair," &c.
In view of such answers as these, with which the book abounds, it is somewhat astonishing to find that the preface of this work is composed of laudatory letters from all parts of the United States.
THE CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF DECAY IN THE TEETH. By J. SIM WALLACE, M.D., D.Sc., L.D.S. Second Edition. Demy 8vo. Pp. 108. 5s. Churchill.
THIS is a collection of articles which originally appeared in our pages entitled, "The Etiology of Dental Caries," and attracted considerable interest. Many of our readers will welcome their being brought together, with some additional observations, in convenient book form.
RULES TO BE OBSERVED IN THE CARE OF THE TEETH. A Book for the Home. By JOHN RAYNER, L. R. C. P. Cr. 8vo. Pp. 43. 9d. Eland, Exmouth. THE origin of this little booklet is sufficiently indicated in the valedictory address at the Western Counties Branch of the Association upon another page of this number. Written with the best intentions by a retired medical practitioner evidently impressed by the importance of the teeth to general health, we much regret to find what might be a valuable pamphlet most disappointing. Our patients and lay readers of intelligence are not likely to be attracted and their attention fixed by a style rather like that of the health and toilette column of a popular magazine. The directions given for the care of the teeth are vague, and lacking in that precision which gives confidence. Many inaccuracies may be removed by a prudent revision, such as the repeated reference to the qualifying "Dental Colleges of Great Britain and Ireland."
On another page will be found a paper read by Mr. Dreschfeld at the Shrewsbury meeting, which we should be sorry to think expressed the views of more than an infinitesimal number of our members. For its proposals, with regard to advertising at least, are diametrically opposed to one of the great principles for which the Association was founded and for the promotion of which it exists. That principle is the exercise of a professional spirit in the practice of our calling. Only by the exercise of that spirit can our calling be lifted from the level of the empiric, the quack, the petty tradesman. Those who, like Mr. Dreschfeld, have entirely failed to grasp the attitude of the Association in this matter say something like this: "The honest tradesman advertises, and is thought no ill of why should not we? Why in the name of common sense should we not inform the public of our existence, and invite them to seek our aid? This anti-advertising cry is it not a fetish, arbitrary and cruel? What essential difference is there between us and the manufacturer or shop-keeper who keeps his self-respect and the respect of the public, although he advertises every day of the week?" What difference? All the difference in the world. The absolute difference between offering one's wares to the public, and offering oneself.
The tradesman in advertising announces his goods, and legitimately invites the public to buy his soap, his cotton, his coal. The professional man, if he advertises, announces himself-his skill and knowledge, his veracity, his judgment, his honour, above all, his desire and intention (if he is worth his salt) to do the best he can for his clients. That is where the difference comes in: for it must be at once admitted that it is revolting to the man of refined—nay, of even decent feeling-to blazon forth his own virtues. And so it has come to be a strict tradition, a tradition that cannot be broken with impunity, that the engineer, the lawyer, the architect, do not and cannot advertise. The simple question for us is this-Do we place ourselves in the same category, or do we not? Do we, that is to say, look upon ourselves as mere purveyors-tradesmen, in fact— or do we consider that we have a right to count ourselves among those whose services to the community must be appraised, not so much by the commodities they deal in as by those personal qualities which may be appraised by others, but which inevitably and inexorably dwindle and die under the baneful breath of self-appraisement?
THERE is another aspect of this question. Although on quite a different level to that just considered, it has a practical bearing, and is
not irrelevant. What, it may be pertinently asked,-what, after all, is gained by advertising in a calling such as that of dentistry? Does the advertiser always wax fat? Glaring instances no doubt there are of those who, with varying degrees of effrontery, assail the public ear and eye, and who flourish, or appear to flourish like the green bay tree. Pitiful instances no doubt there are, of honourable men who watch the abundant foliage, with bitterness in their hearts and starvation at their door.
But here we are pulled up by one or two other questions. Does the man who advertises always succeed, and does the advertising man who succeeds, succeed because of his advertising? And, per contra, does the non-advertiser who fails, fail because he does not advertise? The shrewd observer will, over and over again, be able to answer all these three questions in the negative. For one advertiser who succeeds how many are there who, found out sooner or later in their incompetence by a long-suffering public, fail miserably even to make their bread and butter? And again, what advertising man really succeeds, permanently succeeds (if that can be called success which is achieved through unworthy means) by advertisement pure and simple? Is it not almost invariably the case that the quack who flourishes, flourishes quite as much by reason of certain things too much and too often ignored by many a reputable practitioner ?
A pleasantly furnished, well ordered house, a bright waiting-room, a tidy and attentive servant, a cheerful, confident, sympathetic demeanour on the part of a practitioner who is not to mince words -scrupulously clean in his person, his dress, his appointments;—is it not a fact, the shrewd observer remarks, that blindly neglectful of such things, many a man-academical qualifications galore notwithstanding-sits eating his heart out whilst he gazes across the street at the folks who crowd the rooms of the quack who has not neglected those perfectly legitimate, and, indeed, indispensable requisites to successful practice? But whether the shrewd observer is correct or not in his observations and conclusions, this at all events is true, that the dentist who advertises, and who thereby takes advantage of those that as a body decline to use such means of aggrandisement—this man by the course he takes necessarily puts himself outside the pale of any society or body of men animated by such different principles to his own. We suppose there must always be found those who prefer the mess of pottage to their birthright. Only they cannot have both. A professional man who advertises is a contradiction in terms.
THE Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, July, 1902, contains papers of interest to the student of dental anatomy. Mr. O. Charnock Bradley describes the maxilla of a horse containing seven teeth in the premolar and molar regions on either side. Of these teeth the