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ment has not been maintained, notwithstanding a steady increase in the revenue from advertisements resulting from the growing importance of the Journal, because accompanied by a correspondingly increased cost of production and distribution. As the Committee felt the difficulty would be partly met by a considerable enlargement of the Journal, the present more imposing size was adopted in January, 1899. With a broader margin, better paper, and a printed page of which four equalled five of the old ones, it may be pointed out that the handsome numbers for June, 1899 and 1900, of 128 and 126 pages respectively, contained matter equal to three average numbers of previous years. Our yearly volumes now contain more than a thousand pages of the old size. The work of the staff in editorial supervision of this material, so largely a labour of love, is perhaps only imperfectly realised. The policy of this considerable enlargement in 1899 was justified by immediate results. Being now priced at a shilling for sale outside the Association, although still obtained by members for 75. annually, including heavier postage, receipts for extra copies were doubled; and advertisements-even during this first of the new series—produced more than ever before.

But in spite of this encouragement, the bare cost of production and distribution, without any addition to the editorial item during recent years, has also unavoidably and largely increased-so much so that we are faced by the fact that the margin available for any further improvement is now diminishing to a vanishing point. The free distribution to members for the nominal sum of 7d. of a monthly it is inconceivable private enterprise could undertake for so little, suggests some modification for the future which the Finance and the Publishing Committees will doubtless consider. If, as many members desire, skilled and expert abstracting or translation is required to add completeness and variety, or if really valuable original matter is obtained outside of the Association's own sources, such a development of the Journal would greatly add to its general sale, and the returns from advertisements. But this seems only possible by an increased membership or some slightly larger allocation (say twofifths) of the arbitrary proportion of the annual subscription credited to the Journal.

If I may repeat that while my object was to stimulate discussion and invite suggestions, I also fear my present hearers wish this paper could have been referred to an Antiquarian or Statistical Section of our meeting, or taken as read; but I have not quite recovered from the really impressive task of having recently read the Journal straight through from its first number.

DISCUSSION.

Mr. CUNNINGHAM thought everyone was extremely interested in the able paper which had been read. The main point was the question of the development of a scientific Journal or a gazeteer of Association intelligence. Many years ago, in the parlous times of a deficit, he was asked to do what he could abroad in getting subscribers for the Journal. He did not find much difficulty in getting men to subscribe, but he found that afterwards they gave up taking the Journal simply because it included so much material that was purely Association intelligence, interesting to members of the Association, but not to the dental reader at large. The time was coming when it would be no longer possible to be content with a stately monthly even of 128 pages. The desire for food of an intellectual character would become so strong that it would have to be given oftener and in smaller doses. He thought there might be a dual kind of Journal, an Association supplement which would contain the Association news, while the Journal might make its stately monthly or fortnightly appearance, and have a circulation beyond the circle of the Association. The Association should control the best Journal that could be published, and that Journal should be as good as any in the world.

Mr. BOOTH PEARSALL said he did not think it met the wants of the Association or the wants of the great body of members, because he had never been able to understand why undue prominence should be given to speeches which were of ephemeral interest. Even in mere scissor and paste work the Journal came off very badly indeed. £800 of the Association's money was spent on the Journal, and with very inadequate results. A weekly journal, properly edited by an able man, would be a paying property. He had consulted men engaged in literary work and was informed that with the circulation which could be already guaranteed from the start, in a year it would prove a very valuable return from an investing point of view. To have a Journal thoroughly representative, the Publishing Committee must be given up. In the nature of things a journalist should be the editor. Editing was a matter of inherited character, and a committee could not learn editing. Amongst literary men there were a number of men with the aptitude for editing. In the Association if one had any turn for originality, research and observation, or anything else, one was always seriously discouraged. He agreed with Mr. Cunningham that there should be a great change in the character of the advertisements. He thought it would do good to refuse the advertisement of any medicinal agent of which they did not personally know the constituents. He objected to quack names for things. The dentist should dominate the manufacturers. Members who were known to have the ability should be invited, and, if necessary, paid to write special articles, so that in each year twelve good articles at least might be published which would not appear in any other journal.

Mr. W. H. COFFIN said it was not correct in any way to say that anything like £800 or £900 of the Association's money was going into the Journal. That was the cost of production and distribution, but last year advertisers paid no less a sum than £525, while the external sales amounted to £87, which made £612 obtained from outside the Association, leaving the Association to pay only a little over £370 for the Journal. With such a small margin the Journal could now only be improved from a commercial or an external professional point of view. It would be very difficult to find a dental periodical

in America or anywhere else edited by a barrister, and he thought that even a young practitioner would hardly know the right kind of clipping to put his scissors into. The expense of a professional journalist and staff of associate editors or assessors would be considerable. The very best editor the Association could appoint would never be able to please everybody.

On the Movements of the Mandible.

BY CHARLES S. TOMES, F.R.S., F.R.C.S.

At the time when Mr. Dolamore and I commenced to experiment upon the exact nature of the movements of the mandible during opening of the mouth, I had some recollection of having met with a paper pertinent to the question, but we were neither of us then able to trace it. Recently, however, by the kindness of a correspondent, a copy of this paper has been placed in my hands, and I find that it is a paper by Dr. Luce, published in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal for 1889. I regret that we were unable to make reference to this paper when communicating our results to the Odontological Society, as it anticipated them in some respects, and we may have appeared to claim originality for some conclusions previously published. But on the other hand I am inclined to think that, after all, some advantage accrued from our investigation being absolutely independent, for the methods devised were not wholly dissimilar, and the conclusions arrived at were in some of the most important particulars identical. Conclusions arrived at by means not identical and by observers working quite independently, properly gain some additional weight. Those interested in the subject can now refer to his original paper; for my present purpose it will suffice to say that in his experiments an apparatus was fixed to the lower teeth which carried on stiff arms polished beads, one of which lay over the symphysis, whilst the other lay over the position of the condyle. These were photographed during the opening of the mouth, so that the bright beads described lines upon the negative. In some respects his methods appear to have presented advantages over ours, whilst in others ours were the better, so that the two researches are complementary to one another.

The conclusions reached are identical in the following important respects::

(1) The condyle commences its forward sliding movement from the very first, even in the smallest opening of the mouth, which is contrary to the ordinary text-book statements. Its path, shown graphically in Dr. Luce's photographs, is a curve the concavity of which is directed upwards.

(2) The path of the front of the mandible is not exactly the arc of a circle described from any centre whatever.

Dr. Luce's method brings out the fact, not directly observed by us, that the distance travelled by the sliding condyle is not equal for equal increments in the opening of the mouth, these distances being smallest at the two extremes of movement, viz., towards complete closure and extreme opening, and being largest in intermediate positions. He also showed that, even when the jaw is voluntarily protruded as far as possible before opening it any more than will allow of the protrusion, the condyle nevertheless continues to advance when the mouth is farther opened. He also showed another interesting point, viz., that the mandible deviates considerably from the vertical plane during opening, this deviation being variable even in the same individual, sometimes to one side and sometimes to the other, so that there is an additional and a generally unrecognised difficulty in taking a correct bite.

With the points touched upon in our paper and not dealt with by him I am not at present concerned. I am merely desirous of giving due credit to the earlier observer, and at the same time of expressing my gratification that the results recorded so strongly confirm one another.

On the Relative Value of Fillings.

READ BEFORE THE LEEDS AND DISTRICT SECTION, JANUARY 21, 1902.
BY W. L. JEFFERSON.

THERE is very little doubt that fillings and filling materials are the most important section of the study to which we, as dentists, have devoted our abilities, namely, the study of how to preserve the teeth. At present our stock of information does not endow us with power to prevent decay, that is, not definitely and directly. What I mean is that we cannot say, by subjecting a certain class of teeth to such and such a manner of treatment, and another class of teeth to another manner of treatment, we will protect them from decay; no, our knowledge of the teeth and their requirements has not yet advanced to such a stage, but who can say that it may not do so? that I hope is the glorious fruition of our studies, which years to come may develop for us.

However, if we have not discovered how to prevent decay, we have at least found means to arrest decay when it has already begun, and our principal method for accomplishing this is by filling the cavities of decay with various diverse substances, with which you are already only too familiar, and which therefore require no description,

but the relative merits of which (in the services we require of them) I am going with your assistance to examine to-night.

Now I am not going to take up any time with the history of the operation we call filling, nor am I going to search the archives of the profession in order to find the original inventors; to one and all of those inventors I am sure you will be ready to acknowledge our profound indebtedness. All I propose to do is to take the various materials as we have them to-day, and to see how we agree as to their merits in fulfilling what we require of them. It perhaps would be well to explain also that I do not propose to examine the different fillings with a microscope, or test them with steel tubes or glass tubes and red ink, &c. The very best test for a filling is to put it in the mouth and watch the results there; one of the advantages of this test is that we have opportunities of submitting fillings to it every day, and observing the results at any variety of interval.

To open the subject I think it would be a good plan to describe what I should consider an ideal filling, and by comparing the actual with the ideal you will then have a means of discovering or recognising where the different fillings fall short of our requirements.

The most important consideration when inserting a filling is the exclusion from the cavity of the fluid of the mouth; it is generally agreed that this fluid carries the causes of decay, or perhaps it would be safer to say that where the fluid can penetrate the causes of decay can also penetrate. In order, therefore, to be rid of this fluid all the spongy contents of a cavity are carefully cut away, and the cavity thoroughly dried and kept dry during the insertion of the filling, after which the filling itself is supposed to preserve the tooth by preventing the re-entrance of fluid.

Following out this theory, we may hold that a filling which will actually adhere to the tooth substance has the advantage over a filling which is merely retained by undercuts, because it has the better power to exclude moisture; it must be so, because actual attachment does away with the possibility of capillary action.

For this reason I put the capability of attachment as the first qualification of the ideal filling. This capability of attachment, however, would be valueless were the filling permeable, therefore the ideal filling must be impermeable.

Again, neither of these qualities would be of much consequence were the filling soluble, so we must add the further qualification to the ideal filling of insolubility.

Further, the teeth are subjected to considerable attrition, and any filling material we introduce, to be ideal, must be able to resist attrition at least as well as the teeth themselves.

And now, I believe, there is only one further consideration which is at all connected with the exclusion of moisture, namely, the filling

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