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persons ready for the work. Whether it be a question of the nature of the rocks beneath us, or the composition of the ocean, or of vegetable life or of animal life, the method of inquiry is the same. The rocks are broken and put in the crucible, the water is submitted to analysis, the plant is dissected, and, in order to ascertain the laws which govern its growth and propagation, experiments are made by grafting and by cross fertilisation. In animal life the same method must be adopted to unlock the secrets of nature. The question of the animal being sensitive cannot alter the mode of investigation. It is, therefore, sheer folly and ignorance to stand in the path and forbid any one walking in the one right direction; it cannot be done. All that society should demand is that their rights and privileges should not be interfered with. I may not enter a man's garden to examine his plants, though my aim is a scientific one. I ought not to be allowed to dissect a dead body in my house to the annoyance of my neighbours-it would be a public scandal; and in the same spirit experiments should not be allowed on animals anywhere and by anybody. But when the public mind is appeased in these respects, perfect freedom should be given to the scientific investigator. He cannot but pursue one course, and no law can hinder him.

Having alluded to the Anatomy Act, I may be allowed to add that public feeling has already put restraint enough on scientific and medical men. Our profession is unduly weighted; we are really, as Dr. Foster remarked, asked to make bricks without straw. It may not be in the knowledge of all, that, between forty and fifty years ago, there was so much scandal caused by the stealing of bodies for dissection that the present Anatomy Act was passed. This is a very stringent Act and most rigidly worked. Amongst other clauses it is obligatory that the body when dissected shall be buried. Consequently it is quite impossible to obtain a skeleton, and probably none has been made in England for many years. As a result of this, all the skeletons and bones for the use of students are obtained from abroad. When I was curator of the museum at Guy's Hospital, I paid about twenty pounds a year for French skeletons, and had sometimes difficulty in avoiding the duty on works of art. I would submit the case to the fair trader. It is clear, therefore, that if England had no communication with the Continent, a student here could not thoroughly learn anatomy. The English public is very exacting of the physician as regards his skill, and yet it forbids him the means of acquiring a thorough knowledge of anatomy, and now the same public is endeavouring to stand in the way of his acquiring a knowledge of physiology and pathology.

The ostensible reason offered for the suppression of vivisection is its cruelty;' but when it is objected that other forms of cruelty are unmolested, we are met by the answer that it is useless cruelty. If by useless is meant that it is unattended by scientific results, I leave

the statement to the reader of the testimony above quoted from the foremost men of science. It must, therefore, be meant that all physiological knowledge is useless; and this I leave to the judgment of the medical profession, which has already been conclusively pronounced.

The 'vivisection question' is a burning one, and the sooner it is settled in favour of science and humanity the better, for assuredly it must one day be so determined. The laws of human progress cannot be withstood by any human enactments. Moreover, if ignorant public opinion is kept alive to the question, so is instructed public opinion; for Harvey, the arch-vivisector, left it as an instruction to the College of Physicians, that once a year an oration should be delivered with the object of encouraging its members to search out the secrets of nature by way of experiment.'

SAMUEL WILKS.

INDEX TO VOL. X.

The titles of articles are printed in italics.

A

ABE

BRA

BERDEENSHIRE, land tenure in, BABER (Mr.), report of, on opium

794-799

the farmers' agitation in, 800-810
Addison, his quarrel with Pope, 847-

849

Adler (Dr. Hermann), Recent Phases of
Judæophobia, 813-829
Africa, gold of, 463–464

Africa, North, France and, 448-454
Africa, South, commercial policy of, 51
Agricultural labourer, condition of the,
268-271

dwelling of the, 271-273
Agriculture, depression of, 174-175, 195,
610-611

-

the true source of the national wealth,
178

Alcock (Sir Rutherford), Opium and
Common Sense, 834-868

America, results of protection in, 164,
172, 624, 626

-

commercial produce of, 434-435
gold production of, 465–468

the Jews in, 498-499

small-pox epidemics in, 548-549
the copyright question in,

Anatomy Act, the, 947

726-734

Animals, differences between man and
other, 147-157

Annan, river, 1

Annornia arcens, an African species of
ant, 254

Anthrax, a cattle plague, 544-545
Antiseptic surgery, 541
Ants, Intelligence of, 245-258

Arab Monuments of Egypt, the, 276-283
Arcady, my Return to, 259-275
Architecture, cathedral, 737-743
Army recruits, physique of, 83
Australasia, trade of, with England,
44-45, 181

Australia, commercial policy of, 50-51
— production of gold in, 468–470
Austria, Herrenhaus of, 56

cultivation in China, 862

Badcock (Mr.), his experiments in vac-
cination, 551-552

Baden, Upper Chamber of, 56
Baden-Powell (George), New Markets
for British Produce, 43-55
Bankrupts, our, what shall we do with
them? 308-316

Baptism in the English Church, 750-753
Bartlett (Dr. H. Č.), on the chemistry
of wheat, 345

Bates (Mr.), his observations of ants,
245, 246, 253-254

Baur (Professor F. C.), 92-93
Bavaria, Chamber of Reichsräthe of, 56
Beaconsfield (Earl), a teacher of spiritual
truths, 870

Becket, Archbishop, local associations
of, 299

Belgian Senate, the, 57

Belt (Mr.), his observations of ants,
247, 257, 258

Bevington (Miss L. S.), How to eat
Bread, 341-356

Bible, reading of the, with reference to
the Hebrew books, 515

-

Jewish defence of the, 817-819
Blandford (Marquis of), Hereditary
Rulers, 217-235

Bliss (Dr.), 899

Blount (Martha), Pope's liking for, 850-

851

Board of Trade, proposed supervision of
the Bankruptcy Court by the, 312-313
Board schools, provision of meals and
gymnastic exercises for children at,
86-89

Boileau and Pope, 830-855

Bolton, distress at, in 1836-40, 599, 624
Bookworm, an Old, Gossip of, 63-79,
886-900

Brabazon (Lord), Health and Physique
of our City Populations, 80-89

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Brain, nutrition of the, 347-348
Brain-work, conditions of, 424
Brazil, constitution of, 57
— gold-mining in, 462-463
Bread, how to eat, 341-350
Brown (Rev. J. Baldwin), The Last
Great Dream of the Crusade, 701-722
Buccaneering in the sixteenth century,
406

Büchner, his observation of ants, 257

AIRO, modern, 279-280

ciples' of, 238

the 'Dis-

Canada, commercial policy of, 50
Carey (H. C.), on copyright, 724-725
Carlisle (Bishop of), Man's Place in
Nature, 142-160

Carlyle, Thomas, the Early Life of, 1–42
Carlyle family, 2-3

Carlyle a spiritual teacher, 870
Carpenter (Dr. W. B.), Disease-Germs,
538-554

Cathedrals, architecture of, 737-743
Caucus system, the, 204-205

Cavendish, the buccaneer, death-bed
letter of, 406-407

Cerealine, a chemical principle of wheat,
345

Chamber, Upper, functions of an, 231
Chamberlain (Rt. Hon. J.), his speech
at Birmingham on the Irish Land
Bill, 107-108

Bankruptcy Bill of, 312
Chambers, Second, 56-62
Charbon, an epizootic disease, 542-544

' vaccination' of sheep for, 545–546
Child Life for Children, 567-572
China, history of the opium trade in,

856-858

cultivation of the poppy in, 859-862
Chippewa Indians, 693

Church, Christian, institutions and
usages of the, 881-884

Church of Christ, Unity in the, 120-130
Circumcision, rite of, 814

City Populations, Health and Physique of
our, 80-89

Clark (Rev. H.), his observation of ants,
247

Clere, Elizabeth, letter of, 412
Clergymen, country, condition of, 266-
268

Clifford (Sir Lewis de), mortuary in-
junctions of, 413

(Professor), his advocacy of Dar-
winism, 579

Clôture, need of a, in England, 326
Cobden on the rate of wages in con-

nection with the price of corn, 622
Colonies, commercial policy of the, 47-52
constitutions of the, 57-59
Columbus, career of, 713-718

Columbus'dream of the crusade, 719-722
Commons, House of, the Deadlock in the,
317-340

Compensation for Disturbance Bill, re-
jection of, by the Peers, 188
Comstock Lode, 466-467
Confiscation and Compensation, 107-119
Constitutional government, 219
Coombe (William), writings of, 76
Copyright, International, 723-734
Corn, proposed duty on, 177, 180, 594–
595

Corn laws, evils of the, 199

periods of national distress under the,
623-624

effects of the abolition of the, 430
Corners, Commercial, 532-537
Corvée, the, in Egypt, 645-646
Cosmic Emotion, Pantheism and, 284–
295

Cotton corner, the, 534-537

County Characteristics-Kent, 296–307
Cowper, correspondence of, 414
Croker (Crofton), his description of Sir
Walter Ralegh's house at Youghal,
680

Crown, British, limited power of the,
223

Crusade, the Last Great Dream of the,
701-722

Crusaders, Jewish abuse of the, 501-503
-brutality of the, 823
Customs unions, 47

DALLAM Tower, story of the herons

rooks at, 149

Danes' holes at East Tilbury, 307
Darent, river, scenery of the, 305
Darwin (Erasmus), scientific optimism
of, 573-574

Darwinism, optimistic interpreters of,
577-587

Deadlock, the, in the House of Commons,
317-340

De la Warr (Earl), France and North
Africa, 448-454

Denmark, Upper Chamber of, 57
Derby (Earl of), Ireland and the Land
Act, 473-493

Desmond. eighth earl of, 660–661

Countess Catherine of, 679
Despair, a Dramatic Monologue, 629–
640

Dillon (Frank), The Arab Monuments
of Egypt, 276-283
Disease-Germs, 538–554

Dover, Hubert de Burgh's defence of,

300

Dredging Ground, a, 131-141
Dryden, poetry of, 833

Du Bois-Reymond (Professor), his op
timistic interpretation of Darwinism,
577-578

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Edwards (Mr. E.), on the English
'practices against rebels' in Ireland,
667

Egypt, the Arab Monuments of, 276-283
the Administrative Machinery of,
641-659

Egypt, history of gold in, 463-464
Eliot (George), fiction of, 520-521

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spiritual aims of her writings, 870-
871
Ellendorf (Dr.), his observations of ants,
246, 257

Elliot (Rt. Hon. Hugh), his embassy at
the court of Frederick the Great, 418
letter of, to Gustavus III., 419
Englishmen, physical superiority of, 80-
83

practical character of, 218
Entail, law of, 803
Episcopacy, 125

Established Church, the question of an,
124-125

Europeans in the Egyptian service, 649-
653

Evolution, theory of, 147

theories of life founded on, 575–587
Evolution, Place of Revelation in, 382–
404

Exports, British, during the last fifteen
years, 606. See Imports.

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GOL

Fitzstrathearn (or Strange Petrie),
his letter relating to the 'Princess
Olive of Cumberland '), 894
Flanagan (J. Woulfe), The Irish Jaco-
bins, 785-793

Fleeson (Captain), his observation of
ants, 250

Fleury (Cardinal), his observation of
ants, 256

Foliot (Bishop), his letter to Becket on
ecclesiastical jurisdiction, 410-411
Forster (Mr.), on the question of com-
pensation for Irish landlords. 109
Foster (Professor M.), on the vivisec-
tion question, 942

Fowle (Rev. T. W.), Place of Revelation
in Evolution, 382-404
France, Senate of, 57

the suffrage in, 357–359
conduct of elections in, 360-363
what Protection has done for, 626-
627

– legislation in, 326

commercial treaty with, 445-446
the Jews in, 497

stuff goods of, in English markets,
618-619

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YAME laws in Scotland, 797

Garfield, President, 236-244

Gaskell (Charles Milne), The Position
of the Whigs, 901-912

Gavelkind, law of, 298
Gentility, the mark of, 691

Germany, the Jewish question in, 509–
512, 825-826

Gibbon, historical method of, 91
Gilbert (Dr.), on the bread question,
344, 348-349

Gladstone (Rt. Hon. W. E.) on the de-
cline of the national wealth, 195
Gold, the Future of, 455-472

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