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military music to the Tower, there to be deposited in memory of those gallant victories over the French.

On the 10th of March, 1758, Commodore Howe was married to Mary, the daughter of Chiverton Hartop, Esq., of Welby, in the county of Leicester; and in July of the same year, his brother, George Augustus Lord Howe, fell in his country's service, while acting under the command of the brave Abercrombie, in America. The Commodore, as next of age, succeeded to the title and estates of the family, as Viscount Howe, of Langar.

In 1760, we find Lord Howe again on board his old ship, the Magnanime, attached to the channel fleet; and sailing out under the command of Hawke, to dispossess the French of the island of Damet, which was accomplished after a slight resistance.

In 1763, Lord Howe was appointed to a seat at the Board of Admiralty. In March, 1775, he was appointed RearAdmiral of the White; and in December of the same year he was created Vice-Admiral of the Blue.

On the 15th of February, 1776, he was appointed commander-in-chief of the North American Station, and received a joint commission with his brother, General Sir William Howe, already there, to treat with the revolted Americans, and to take measures for the restoration of peace, with the colonies.

On the 11th of October, 1782, he valiantly entered the Bay of Gibraltar, in opposition to the combined fleets of France and Spain; who, though writhing with crushed pride, had not the courage for an open action.

It was shortly after his return to England that he purchased the estate of Porter's Lodge, in Hertfordshire, for his place of retirement when ashore. In doing this, he caused his library to be fitted up so as to resemble the cabin of his flag-ship.

In August, 1789, our hero was created an Earl of Great Britain; and on the commencement of hostilities with France, at the particular request of His Majesty, he accepted the command of the channel fleet.

We must here, of necessity, make a digression from the tenor of our way, to say a few words respecting the renewal of the war; or the reader may be lost in the mazes that we now call him to pursue, in following the naval career of Admiral Howe.

On the 2nd of January, 1793, a British sloop-of-war, of 16 guns, the Childers, Captain Barlow, was cruising in the channel, near the harbour of Brest, when a shot was fired at

*Sir John Barrow.

her from one of the batteries of that fort. The English captain, thinking there was some mistake, and that his vessel was not known, hoisted his colours; but to his surprise both the forts of Brest harbour, on the instant, hoisted French colours, and, as immediate as possible, fired together upon the lonely sloop, which the flood tide was every moment drifting nearer to them. As good fortune would have it, however, a breeze as instantly came off the shore, and bore the Childers out to sea, where their murderously intentioned shot could not reach her. This affair was soon made known in England, and as may be supposed, was not passed over in silence. To add circumstances of a grievous nature inimical to the late treaty of peace, was becoming of daily occurrence; but when towards the close of the month the French National Convention encompassed the death of Louis XVI., England gave prompt orders for the French ambassador to quit the country; and on the 1st of February, 1793, the National Convention declared war against Great Britain and the United Netherlands. This was answered by a counter declaration by England on the 11th; Spain also declaring war against France at the same time.

"The first action of this celebrated war," says Allen, "was fought on the 13th of March, 1793, between the British 16-gun brig, Scourge, (but which had only eight of her guns, long six pounders, mounted), commanded by Captain George Brisac, and the Sans Culotte, French privateer, of 12 guns, eight long 8-pounders, and four English 12-pounder carronades. The action took place off Scilly, and lasted three hours; but in the end proved victorious to the Scourge, which lost in the action, out of her crew of seventy men and boys, one man killed, and one wounded. The privateer, out of a crew of eighty-one, had nine killed and twenty wounded.

"The first British officer who lost his life in this war was Lieutenant Western, of the Syren, 32 guns, who, in command of a gun boat (the gun of which he was at that time levelling), was actively co-operating with the forces under the orders of H.R.H. the Duke of York, at the Noord, on the Moordyke, on the 21st of March, when he received a musket-ball through his head. He was buried at Dordrecht, and to which place his remains were followed by the Duke of York, who ordered a suitable monument to be erected to his memory."

The same naval chronicler informs us of other feats, as connected with the by-play of the two nations on the commencement of the war, before any general action took place, and which we quote as undoubted authority.

"On the 14th of April, a squadron under Rear-Admiral Gell, bound to the Mediterranean, consisting of the St. George,

98 guns; Ganges, Edgar, and Egmont, 74 guns; with the Phaeton frigate, fell in with and captured the General Dumourier privateer, mounting 22 long six-pounders, and 196 men, with a Spanish galleon, which she was convoying to a port of France. The galleon was from Lima, with a cargo valued at £200,000. Both were taken to Plymouth, and after much litigation were condemned. The seizure of this recaptured ship, though perfectly legal, occasioned a great sensation at Madrid, and was one of the principal causes of the war which afterwards broke out between Spain and Great Britain.

"On the 13th of May, at 5 p.m. being in lat. 42° 34′ N. and long. 13° 12′ W., the British 12 pounder 32-gun frigate, Iris, Captain George Lumsdaine, while standing to the southward, with the wind at north-east, discovered a sail on her weather quarter. The Iris hauled to the wind to close the stranger, and at 6 p.m. hove to. The stranger, which appeared to be a French frigate, having hauled up on the weather quarter of the Iris, the action commenced and continued until 8, when the enemy made all sail to windward and escaped. The Iris endeavoured to make sail after her, but her foremast, maintopmast, and mizenmast, went over the side in the attempt. The Iris reached Gibraltar five days afterwards, and it was conjectured that she had engaged the Medea, of 36 guns, which statement subsequently appeared in the London journals; but it was afterwards pretty clearly ascertained that her opponent was the Citoyenne Françoise, an old French_32-gun frigate, then a privateer, which ship arrived at Bordeaux in a shattered state. Out of a crew of 217, the Iris had four seamen killed, her first lieutenant, master (Mr. Magee), mortally, and 30 seamen and marines wounded. The Citoyenne, out of 250, had her captain, (Dubedal), and 15 men killed and 37 wounded.

"On the 17th of June, the 36-gun frigate, Nymphe, Captain Edward Pellew, sailed from Falmouth on a cruise. On the next day at 3h. 30m. a.m., the start bearing east by north five or six leagues, a sail was discovered to leeward, and the Nymphe bore up under all sail. At 5h. the stranger, the French 36-gun frigate, Cleopatre, shortened sail, and awaited the approach of the Nymphe. At about 6h. a.m., the Nymphe having hauled up on the weather quarter, the Cleopatre hailed, and was answered by three cheers from the Nymphe. Captain Mullon, the French commander, then came to the gangway, and, waving his hat, exclaimed Vive la Nation!' his crew making a noise in imitation of British cheers; at the same time the Cleopatre filled and bore up. At 6h. 15m. the Nymphe having taken up her station on the starboard quarter

of the Cleopatre, a furious action commenced, both the frigates running before the wind within hail. At 6h. 30m. the Cleopatre suddenly hauled to the wind on the larboard tack, but her mizenmast and wheel being both shot away, she paid round off before the wind, and fell on board the Nymphe, her jib-boom passing between the fore and mainmasts, and pressing hard against the latter. As the main and spring stays were shot away, the mainmast was expected every moment to fall, but the jib-boom of the French ship gave way, and the mast kept its place. Both ships then dropped alongside head and stern. The Cleopatre's maintopmast studding sail boomiron having hooked the leech rope of the Nymphe's maintopsail, the mainmast was again endangered, but a top-man, named Burgess, sprang aloft and cut away the rope, and at the same time the lieutenant let go the anchor. The Cleopatre was then gallantly boarded, and at 7h. 10m. the republican colours were hauled down!

"The Nymphe had her boatswain (Tobias James), one master's mate (Richard Pearce), three midshipmen, 14 seamen, and 4 marines killed. Her second lieutenant, 2 midshipmen, Lieut. Whittaker of marines, 17 seamen and 6 marines wounded; altogether 63 killed and wounded. The action, though highly honourable to both, was especially so to the French captain and his crew, whose defence lasted while the possibility of resistance remained. The captain (Mullon), was wounded in the back and hip by a round shot; and it is related of him, that having in his pocket the list of coast signals in use by the French, he took what he considered to be the paper, and died biting it to pieces.

"On the 21st the Nymphe arrived at Portsmouth with her prize; and on the 29th Captain Pellew, with his brother, Captain Israel Pellew, who was a volunteer on board the Nymphe, were introduced by the Earl of Chatham to King George the Third. The honour of knighthood was conferred on the senior, and the rank of post-captain on the junior brother. The first lieutenant, Amherst Morris, was made a commander. The prize was purchased into the service, and named Oiseau."

Other actions of a similar kind are recorded about the same period; and in the month of August, 1793, a victorious feat performed by Hood at Toulon, stands foremost; but of that admiral's exploits we shall speak bye and bye. And now we will resume our life notice of Howe.

On the 2nd of May, 1794, Lord Howe sailed out with a fleet of 34 ships of the line, protecting about 400 sail of convoys for various destinations. On the 28th of May, the period arrived that dawned like rising glory around the path



of Howe, as he trod the deck of his far-famed ship, the Queen Charlotte, of 100 guns, and our annals will long bear testimony how on that day the enemy was first discovered; and although they endeavoured to keep some miles to windward, the van of Lord Howe's fleet came in contact with some of them during the night. The Audacious, 74, and the Bellerophon (RearAdmiral Pasley's ship), had a slight skirmish with the three deckers of the French rear line. On the morning of the 29th Lord Howe, notwithstanding a heavy sea, and the enemy lying to windward, having an idea that his plan (that of passing through the French line) was not properly understood, and as there was now no time for long counsel or instruction, tacked and broke through the enemy's line of battle, cutting past the fifth ship from the rear, his own ship, of course, taking the lead, and there did he for some time stand, more like a magic creature of romance than anything else, cut off from his fleet, along the weather side of the French line, unappalled by the frowning gloom of the enemy.

Having poured severe broadsides into the French ships, Eole, Terrible, and others, about five o'clock both fleets fell into line. During the night a thick fog came on, and this prevented anything of a decisive nature until Sunday the 1st of June.

What the feelings of British sailors are when far from the endearments of their native land, the homely hearth, and the smile of kindred; out on the deep sea, waiting, in the dense fog of a distant clime, for the moment when active duty calls them to be the familiars of horror in its most appalling forms, can only be known to the experienced. Dibden says—

"While up the shrouds the sailor goes,

Or ventures on the yard;

The landsman, who no better knows,
Believes his lot is hard.

But Jack with smiles each danger meets,

Casts anchor, heaves the log;

Trims all the sails, belays the sheets,

And drinks his can of grog.

On the first of June, the fog having cleared away, Howe made signal to the squadron under his command, that he purposed an attack upon the centre of the enemy's line, which consisted of twenty-six ships, and the British of twenty-five. The French are reported to have waited for the attack. About half-past nine, an opening roar of cannon from Howe's ship, the Queen Charlotte, announced the commencement of the celebrated action. In less than one hour, ten dismasted wrecks

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