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ing influence. After his death they were collected in a volume called Lyre and Sword. One of the finest was the Sword Song, written by the bivouac fire the night before his last battle. It is said to have been sung by the whole army the next morning. Lützow's Wild Chase unconsciously foretold his own end :—

Who looks for the last time up to the sun,
Among groaning foemen lying?
Death stiffens his features, his race is run,
But the land is free, and the battle won,

And the brave shrinks not from dying!
And the fallen black horsemen-who were they?
They were Lützow's bold riders that led the fray.

Körner must serve as the example of the patriotic poets. Only the names can be mentioned of ERNST ARNDT (1769-1860), author of the well-known poem beginning"What is the German's Fatherland?" and of HEINRICH VON KLEIST (1776-1811), who wrote a famous drama, The Broken Pitcher. Such men as these aroused Germans everywhere. The spirit of the great uprising had a strong intermixture of joy -joy that there was at last work to be done, and blows to be struck for the Fatherland, that the splendor of the necessity merged all petty jealousies in one vast common cause.

Contemporary with Körner and the others was JEAN PAUL FRIEDRICH RICHTER (1763-1825), best known as Jean Paul. IIe is a difficult writer to classify, in fact he stands by himself in his strange

imaginative quality. He was a man of the most wide and varied reading, but he did not handle his material with proper discretion, and what Schiller says to him is true enough: "You would indeed be worthy of admiration, if you made as good use of your riches as others make of their poverty." His riches are unfolded in sixty-five volumes of romances, dreams, visions, homilies. Several of the finest passages of his works have been made familiar to English readers by the translations of Thomas De Quincey. Jean Paul was in Weimar in 1796 and again in 1798-1800. He was a warm admirer of Herder, and met Goethe and Schiller. He was strongly influenced by the stirring events of the time. His chief trait, however, was a deep sense of God and immortality, coupled with a delight in all existence and a passionate love for nature-the last instanced by many beautiful descriptive passages scattered through his writings. And the reason that with all his great gifts he was not a stronger and more influential writer is because the prime of his life fell during the period of Germany's deepest national humiliation, and the culture of his individual character had not the necessary foundation of a strong national life on which to build. He lacked that mental balance which is so essential a condition of true art.

Still keeping to the early century, we come upon another writer of a healthier and sounder type. JOHANN LUDWIG UHLAND was born at Tübingen in

1787. He rose to the position of Professor of Literature at the University in his native town, and played a considerable part in political life as well. He died at Tübingen, 1862. Uhland's poetry was romantic, popular and national. The form is romantic, but the feeling is seldom or never in excess; Uhland was too much of an artist to allow his heart to run away with his intellect. "His figures walk upright and on solid ground." Even in his youthful poems there is something more than the mere exuberance of imagination which so often infuses youthful romanticism; e. g., The Castle by the Sea :

Saw'st thou a castle fair?

Yon castle by the sea;
Golden and rosy there,

The clouds float gorgeously.

And fain it would descend
Into the wave below,

And fain it would soar and blend
With the evening's crimson glow.

Yon castle have I viewed,

Yon castle by the sea;
The moon above it stood

And the mists hung heavily.

The wind and the heaving sea,

Sounded they fresh and strong?
From the Hall came notes of glee,
Harping and festive song?

The winds and the waters all
Rested in slumber deep,

And I heard from the groaning Hall
Music that made me weep.

Saw'st thou the king and his spouse
Walking there side by side,
The diadem on their brows

And their mantles waving wide?

Led they their cherished one
With joy, a daughter fair,
Resplendent as the sun

In the light of her golden hair?

Well saw I the royal pair,

But without the crown I wot;
Dark mourning weeds they wore,
The maiden saw I not.

This is a good example of his ballads, which formed the best portion of his poetry. The Fatherland Poems, whose name tells their story, appeared in 1816 and 1817. Underneath Uhland's singing lies a note of sympathy with the people and of pride in their power. There is always an aspiration for the common good. He is, therefore, the most popular of the German poets, next to Schiller. “He has shown the German people their better self; he has shown the world what a wealth of strength, of bravery, of humor, of goodness, of inspiration, slumbers under the modest and quiet exterior of this people; he glorified those unpretentious and emphatically German virtues: faithfulness and patience." In the ballad he had many imitators. As he grew old his poetical power seemed to wane. He became prominent rather as a scholar and, with WILHELM SCHLEGEL (1767–1845), founded Romance Philology in Germany.


After the rousing of the Fatherland, with all its fire and song, there comes the peculiar reaction mentioned above. Once more it is left to poets to keep alive the grand idea of national unity, even as Klopstock and Lessing and Goethe and Schiller had done in the hundred years of the past. This state of things held until, and indeed after, the Revolution of 1848. Its effect upon literature was marked. Heine's works were proscribed; other poets were checked in their development, like FRANZ GRILLPARZER (1791-1872); or driven to foreign subjects like FRIEDRICH RÜCKERT (1789-1866). "The best minds of the nation were affected by the universal repression of public activity . . . they were crippled in their natural development, alienated from their own day and their own country discouraged in their views of life." But space forbids anything further on this subject. Many good names must be omitted.

Foremost among German writers since Goethe is HEINRICH HEINE. He was born at Düsseldorf on the Rhine in 1799. His father was a Jew and mapped out for the boy a mercantile life. After a little preliminary schooling he went to Hamburg, where his uncle offered him a position of clerk in his own counting-house. For almost three years the youth remained there, hating it as an imaginative and indolent young man would naturally hate the place of his bondage. In fact he ever afterwards referred to the city as "verdammtes Hamburg"-an expression which is quite as strong as it sounds! But

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