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was not healthy in tone and was followed by a perfect host of imitators in the hyper-sensitive vein. But it was a valuable contribution to German literature and "carried its author's name on its blazing wings, not only over Germany, but into the remotest corner of Europe."
Goethe remained at Frankfort until November, 1775, when, accepting the repeated invitation of the Prince Karl August, he went to Weimar. There he lived until his death, and shed upon the little Saxon duchy an imperishable renown. Prince Karl saw that Goethe's strong qualities would be useful not alone in literary production; he made the poet Finance Minister, so that he should aid in the management of the little court. And Goethe produced a very powerful effect upon the Weimarians. He was then twenty-six, with all the accompanying glory of fame and personal beauty. Wieland was already at Weimar; he calls the newcomer "a magnificent youth." Shortly after the magnificent youth came he contracted a warm friendship with a very charming lady, the Frau von Stein. Her character acted strongly upon his own; in fact, as his mother and Frederika had done, she called forth the best that was in him. Goethe did not forget his old friends. At his suggestion Herder was invited to Weimar, where he became court preacher and remained until his death.
The life at Weimar was a delightful one. The court was made up chiefly of young people in the
full flush of youthful spirits. With the Duke and Goethe to lead the revels, time went forward merrily. But continually the poet's character was crystallizing from youth to manhood. In 1779 he wrote a play upon the Greek model-Iphigenia at Tauris. First written in prose, it was made into verse during 1786. It is related to the Greek Drama, though with quite marked differences. In the end of 1779 Goethe and his royal master made a tour through the south of Germany, visiting Frankfort and Strasburg, and passing into Switzerland. About this time the poet was strongly attracted to science. Seven years later he went to Italy. This experience had an effect upon him which was of value for all his remaining life. He gratified the longing of his youth; he came in contact with a new and wonderful environment; his mind received an immense influx of fresh ideas. While in Italy he was not idle. He re-wrote Egmont, of which he had made an outline at Weimar. It is a drama of sombre significance, touching upon the revolt of the Netherlands. Some scenes of Faust were written. In April, 1788, he returned to Weimar, finishing Tasso on his way.
Towards the end of the same year he met Schiller, who had come to Weimar during his absence; but as yet their tastes did not admit of much sympathy -the difference may be gauged by the fact that Schiller wrote The Robbers, a typically Storm and Stress play, at a time when Goethe had forever put
behind him the whole Storm and Stress movement. Not for some years was each to realize the other's value.
In 1792-3 Germany, with other nations, had been involved in war with France. Karl August and Goethe took the field with the army. Goethe hated campaigning, however, and was glad to return home once more. Up to his final meeting with Schiller in 1794, he worked a great deal but produced only a little. It was in May of 1794 that the beautiful friendship was formed which brought about such grand results.
GERMANY: GOETHE AND SCHILLER.
SCHILLER.-EARLY HARDSHIPS.—"THE ROBBERS."— GOETHE AND SCHILLER. THE "DIOSCOURI."— RESULTS OF THE FRIENDSHIP.-SCHILLER'S MASTERPIECES.-"FAUST."
FRIEDRICH SCHILLER was born at Marbach, Würtemberg, on November 11, 1759. His life was a history of difficulties nobly overcome, and of wonderful achievement in the face of despair. Herein he affords a marked contrast to Goethe. The latter had health and wealth and all that goes to make life happy; the former was poor, and the greater part of his existence was embittered by sickness. His youth was not a happy one. The elder Schiller had been a surgeon in the Bavarian army, but afterward had obtained a commission in that of Würtemberg. The Duke of Würtemberg founded a free Seminary at which the sons of soldiers should have the prefer ence. He invited the Schillers to send their boy there for his education. This kindness was somewhat embarrassing, as they had determined upon the Church for young Friedrich; but the Duke's servant could not criticise the Duke's thoughtfulness, so the future poet was packed off to Stuttgart, at the age
of fourteen, to study Law. He himself has left an opinion of the six years spent there; they were the most miserable of his whole life. The system was procrustean: liberty was an unheard of principle, an iron rule was applied to all alike, and their very amusements went by word of command. The effect of this discipline was to fan to flame his love of freedom, and, incidentally, his hatred of the Law. In 1775 he was permitted to exchange it for the study of Medicine, and upon leaving the school he became regimental surgeon at Stuttgart. Butthough his practice is said to have been successful— his real interests were far afield. He had been long familiar with Plutarch, Shakespeare, Klopstock, Lessing, Goethe and others--dear delights sought out in secret. In fact "his mind had already dimly discovered its destination and was striving with a restless vehemence to reach it in spite of every obstacle." The sound of the Storm and Stress penetrated even to his seclusion and stirred him with the thought of great forces awake and moving.
The earliest tangible effect of the movement upon Schiller is seen in a play called The Robbers, published 1781, while its author was still chafing under the stern discipline of the Free Seminary. It was a typical storm and stress play-"irregular, fantastic, useless," as Carlyle calls it, "but grand in its height and massiveness and black strength." Briefly, the plot hinges upon the wrongs of an innocent young man who is driven by suspicion and ill treatment to