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because it was by Christ that every thing was man, that Christ may dwell in your hearts made.

Ver. 12. "In whom we have," saith he, "boldness, and access in confidence through our faith in him."

"Have access," not as prisoners, he says, nor yet, as persons candidates for pardon, nor as sinners; for, saith he, we have even "boldness with confidence," that is, accompanied with cheerful trust; arising from what source? through our faith in Him."

Ver. 13. "Wherefore I ask that ye faint not at my tribulations for you, which are your glory."

How is it "for them?" How is it "their glory?" It is because God so loved them, as to give even the Son for them, and to afflict His servants for them: for it was in order that they might attain so many blessings, that Paul was in prison. Surely this was from God's exceeding love towards them: it is what God also saith concerning the Prophets, "I have slain them by the words of my mouth." (Hos. vi: 5.) But how was it that they fainted, when another was afflicted? He means, they were troubled, were distressed. This also he says when writing to the Thessalonians, "that no man be moved by these afflictions." (1 Thes. iii: 3.) For not only ought we not to grieve, but we ought even to rejoice. If ye find consolation in the forewarning, we tell you beforehand that here we have tribulation. And why pray? Because thus hath the Lord ordered. Ver. 14, 15. "For this cause I bow my knees unto the Father from whom every family in heaven and on earth is named."

He here shows the spirit of his prayer for them. He does not say simply, "I pray," but manifests the supplication to be heartfelt, by the "bowing of the knees."

"From whom every family."

That is, no longer, he means, reckoned, according to the number of Angels, but according to Him who hath created the tribes both in heaven above and in earth beneath, not as the Jewish.

Ver. 16, 17. "That He would grant you according to the riches of His glory that ye may be strengthened with power through His Spirit in the inward man; that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith."

Mark with what insatiable earnestness he invokes these blessings upon them, that they may not be tossed about. But how shall this be effected? By the "Holy Spirit in your inward

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[Wherefore, "in view of my position as minister of such a gospel."-Riddle.-G. A.] * [This TOUTOU Xápur is a resumption of the first verse of the chapter which was left unfinished by reason of the digression concerning his office as apostle of the Gentiles, which forms a section by itself. (ver. 2-13.)—G. A.]

through faith." How again shall this be? Ver. 18, 19. "To the end that ye being rooted and grounded in love, may be strong to apprehend with all the saints, what is the breadth, and length, and height, and depth, 3 and to know the love of Christ which passeth knowledge."

Thus is his prayer now again, the very same as when he began. For what were his words in the beginning? "That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory may give unto you a Spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of Him; having the eyes of your heart enlightened, that ye may know what is the hope of His calling, what the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints; and what the exceeding greatness of His power to us-ward who believe." And now again he says the same. "That ye may be strong to apprehend with all the saints what is the breadth, and length, and height, and depth; " i. e., to know perfectly the mystery which hath been providentially ordered in our behalf: "and the breadth, and length, and height, and depth; that is, too, the immensity of the love of God, and how it extends every where. And he outlines it by the visible dimensions of solid bodies, pointing as it were to a man. He comprehends the upper and under and sides. I have thus spoken indeed, he would say, yet is it not for any words of mine to teach you these things; that must be the work of the Holy Spirit. His might," saith he, is it that ye must be "strengthened" against the trials that await you, and in order to remain unshaken; so that there is no other way to be strengthened but by the Holy Ghost, both on account of trials and carnal reasonings.

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But how doth Christ dwell in the hearts? Hear what Christ Himself saith, "I and my Father will come unto him, and make our abode with him." (John xiv: 23.) He dwelleth in those hearts that are faithful, in those that are "rooted "in His love, those that remain firm and unshaken.

"That ye may be" thoroughly "strong," saith he; so that there is great strength needed. 5That ye may be filled unto all the fulness of God."

["A sensuous illustration of the idea; 'how great in every

relation."-Meyer.G. A.1.

of redemption as Chrysostom (τὸ μυστήριον τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν οἰκον· ["Of what are these dimensions predicated? Not of the work ounev) because after a new portion of the discourse is begun at

ver. 14, the vσryptov is not again mentioned; nor of the love of God to us, as Chrysostom again, for the ev ayánŋ preceding does not refer to God's love; but of the love of Christ to men as shown

in ver. 19."-Meyer. So Ellicott, Braune, Riddle.-G. A.]

[This entire paragraph is omitted from Field's text. But as it is supported by several excellent authorities, as it is in Chrysostom's style and as it contains a very noble thought, we have ventured to retain it. "Field seems to rely on the probability that the shorter text is the original. One of his main authorities seems

What he means is this. Although the love and orders of heavenly beings; as also we find of Christ lies above the reach of all human it written in Scripture, "the family of Amatknowledge, yet shall ye know it, if ye shall tari:" (1 Sam. x: 21. See Septuagint.) or else have Christ dwelling in you, yea, not only shall that it is from Him from whom earthly fathers know from Him this, but shall even "be filled have their name of father. unto all the fulness of God; " meaning by the "fulness of God," either the knowledge how God is worshipped in the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, or else urging them thus to use every effort, in order to be filled with all virtue, of which God is full.

Ver. 20. "Now unto Him that is able to do exceeding abundantly above all that we ask or think, according to the power that worketh in

us."

That God hath done "abundantly above all that we ask or think," is evident from what the Apostle himself hath written. For I indeed, saith he, pray, but He of Himself, even without any prayer of mine, will do works greater than all we ask, not simply "greater," nor "abundantly greater," but "exceeding abundantly." And this is evident from "the power, that worketh in us:" for neither did we ever ask these things, nor did we expect them.

Ver. 21.

"Unto Him be the glory," he concludes, in the Church and in Christ Jesus, unto all generations forever and ever. Amen." Well does he close the discourse with prayer and doxology; for right were it that He, who hath bestowed upon us such vast gifts, should be glorified and blessed, so that this is even a proper part of our amazement at His mercies, to give glory for the things advanced to us at God's hands through Jesus Christ.

"The glory in the Church." Well might he say this, forasmuch as the Church alone can last on to eternity.

It seems necessary to state what are meant by "families." (Taτρial) Here on earth, indeed there are "families " that is races sprung from one parent stock; but in heaven how can this be, where none is born of another? Surely then, by families," he means either the assemblies

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to be a Catena which would naturally abridge the portions extract

However, he does not ask the whole of God, but demands of them also faith and love, and not simply love, but love "rooted and grounded," so that neither any blasts can shake it, nor any thing else overturn it. He had said, that "tribulations are "glory," and if mine are so to you, he would say, much more will your own be: so that to be afflicted is no token of men being forsaken, for He who hath wrought so great things for us, never would do this.

Again, if in order to understand the love of God, it was necessary for Paul to pray, and there was need of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit, who by following mere reasonings shall understand the nature of Christ? And why is it a difficult thing to learn that God loveth us? Beloved, it is extremely difficult. For some know not even this; wherefore, they even say, numberless evils come to be in the world; and others know not the extent of this love.. Nor, indeed, is Paul seeking to know its extent, nor with any view to measure it; for how could he? but only to understand this, that it is transcendent, and great. And this very thing, he says, he is able to show, even from the knowledge which hath been vouchsafed to us.

However, what is higher than the being "strengthened with might," in order to have Christ within? Vast are the things we ask, saith he, yet is He able to do above even them, so that not only doth He love us, but doth so intensely. Be it our care therefore, beloved, to understand the love of God. A great thing indeed is this; nothing is so beneficial to us, nothing so deeply touches us : more availing this to convince our souls than the fear of hell itself. Whence then shall we understand it? Both from the sources now mentioned, and from the things which happen every day. For from what motive have these things been done whatever. Over and over again he lays down for us? from what necessity on His part? None love as the cause. But the highest degree of This text has various interpretations. S. Athanasius uses it to imply that God, as Father of the Son, is the only true Father, love is that where men receive a benefit, withand that all created paternity is a shadow of the true. Orat. in Arian. i. 23. S. Jerome says, "As He who alone is good, (Luke out any prior service on their part to call for it. 18, 19.) makes men good, and who is alone immortal, (1 Tim. 6, MORAL. And let us then be followers of Him; 16.) bestows immortality, and who alone is true (Rom. 3, 4.) imparts the name of truth; so too the only Father, in that He is Crea- let us do good to our enemies, to them that hate tor of all, and the cause of substance to all, gives to the rest to be us, let us draw near to those who turn their called Father." in loc. He considers that the Angels are said in the text to share His paternity, in a spiritual sense, as Christ says backs upon us. This renders us like unto God. to the sick man, "Son," and to His disciples, "Little children." "For if ye love them that love you," saith Theodoret seems to say the same. in loc. v. also Hooker, E. P. V. liv. 2. [The reference must be to those larger classes and com- Christ, "what reward have ye?" "Do not munities into which, as we may also infer from other passages (1: 21; Col. 1: 16) the celestial hosts appear to be divided; and to even the Gentiles the same. (Matt. v: 46.) the races and tribes of men every one of which owes the very title But what is a sure proof of love? To love him οι πατριά, by which it is defined to the great πατήρ of all the Tarpiai both of angels and men."-Ellicott. "The Apostle seems regarding God as the Father of us His adopted children in Christ, to go forth into the fact that He in this relation to us is the great

We have in the main followed Field's text in spite of this probed especially in a writer so given to amplifications as Chrysostom."

ability, but in exceptional cases, like the present, we have ventured to demur.-G. A.]

original and prototype of the paternal relation, wherever found." Alford in Riddle in Pop, Com,—G. A.]

that hates thee. I wish to give you some example, (pardon me,) and since I find it not among them that are spiritual, I shall quote an instance from them that are without. See ye not those lovers? How many insults are wreaked upon them by their mistresses, how many artifices practised, how many punishments inflicted: : yet they are enchained to them, they burn for them, and love them better than their own souls, passing whole nights before their thresholds. From them let us take our example, not indeed to love such as those,-women, I mean, that are harlots; no, but thus to love our enemies. For tell me, do not harlots treat their lovers with greater insolence than all the enemies in the world, and squander away their substance, and cast insult in their face, and impose upon them more servile tasks than upon their own menials? And yet still they desist not, though no one hath so great an enemy in any one, as the lover in his mistress. Yea, this beloved one disdains, and reviles, and oftentimes maltreats him, and the more she is loved, the more she scorns him. And what can be more brutal than a spirit like this? Yet notwith-caped out of their hands. They kept murmurstanding he loves her still.

former act been that of passion and frenzy, then would he have smitten and killed this man also; for surely he on whose behalf it was done, never would have informed against him. But because they were brethren, it is said, he spoke thus. When he [the Hebrew] was being wronged, he uttered no such word "Who made thee a ruler and a judge over us?" "Wherefore saidst thou not this yesterday?" Moses would say, "Thy injustice, and thy cruelty, these make me a ruler and a judge."

But possibly we shall find love like this in spiritual characters also, not in those of our day, (for it has "waxed cold,") (Matt. xxiv: 12.) but in those great and glorious men of old. Moses, the blessed Moses, surpassed even those that love with human passion. How, and in what way? First, he gave up the court, and the luxury, and the retinue, and the glory attending it, and chose rather to be with the Israelites. Yet is this not only what no one else would ever have done, but would have even been ashamed, were another to have discovered him, of being found to be a kinsman of men, who were slaves and not only slaves, but were looked upon as even execrable. Yet was he not only not ashamed of his kindred, but with all his spirit defended them, and threw himself into dangers for their sake. (Acts. vii: 24.) How? Seeing, it is said, one doing an injury to one of them, he defended him that suffered the injury, and slew him that inflicted it. But this is not as yet for the sake of enemies. Great indeed is this act of itself, but not so great as what comes afterwards. The next day, then, he saw the same thing taking place, and when he saw him whom he had defended1 doing his neighbor wrong, he admonished him to desist from his wrong-doing. But he said, with great ingratitude, "Who made thee a ruler and a judge over us?" (Acts. vii: 27.) Who would not have taken fire at these words? Had then the [It does not appear from the account in Exodus ii: 11 ff. or from that in Acts. vii: 24 ff. that the Hebrew who did his brother wrong was the same that Moses had defended on the preceeding day, as Chrysostom here takes for granted.-G. A.]

But now, mark, how that some, in fact, say as much even to God Himself. Whenever they are wronged indeed, they would have Him a God of vengeance, and complain of His long suffering; but when themselves do wrong, not for a moment.

However, what could be more bitter than words like these? And yet notwithstanding, after this, when he was sent to that ungrateful, to that thankless race, he went, and shrunk not back. Yea, and after those miracles, and after the wonders wrought by his hand, oftentimes they sought to stone him to death and he es

ing too incessantly, and yet still, notwithstanding, so passionately did he love them, as to say unto God, when they committed that heinous sin, "Yet now if Thou wilt forgive, forgive their sin; and if not, blot even me also out of the book which Thou hast written." (Ex. xxxii : 32.) Fain would I perish, saith he, with them, rather than without them be saved. Here, verily, is love even to madness, verily, unbounded love. What sayest thou, Moses? Art thou regardless of Heaven? I am, saith he, for I love those who have wronged me. Prayest thou to be blotted out? Yea, saith he, what can I do, for it is love? And what again after these things? Hear what the Scripture saith elsewhere; "And it went ill with Moses for their sakes." (Ps. cvi: 32.) How often did they wax wanton? How often did they reject both himself and his brother? How often did they seek to return back to Egypt? and yet after all these things did he burn, yea, was beside himself with love for them, and was ready to suffer for their sakes.

Thus ought a man to love his enemies; by lamentation, by unwearied endurance, by doing everything, by showing all favor, to aim at their salvation.

And what again, tell me, did Paul? did he not ask even to be accursed in their stead? (Rom. ix: 3.) But the great pattern we must of necessity derive from the Lord, for thus doth He also Himself, where he saith, "For He maketh His sun to rise on the evil and the good." (Matt. V: 45.) adducing the example from His Father; but we from Christ Himself. He came unto

Thus is it we ought to love our enemies, thus to imitate Christ. Thus did Paul. Stoned, suffering unnumbered cruelties, yet did he all things for their good. Hear his own words. "My heart's desire and my supplication to God is for them that they may be saved." (Rom. x : 1, 2.) And again; "For I bear them witness that they have a zeal for God." And again; "If thou, being a wild olive tree wast grafted in, how much more shall these be grafted into their own olive tree?" (Rom. xi: 24.) How tender, thinkest thou, must be the affection from which these expressions proceed, how vast the benevolence? it is impossible to express it, impossible.

them, in His Incarnation, I mean, He became Did He not send Apostles? Did He not work a servant for their sakes, "He humbled Him- miracles? Did He not shake the whole world? self, He emptied Himself, He took the form of a servant." (Phil. ii: 7, 8.) And when He came unto them, He went not Himself aside "into any way of the Gentiles," (Matt. x: 5.) and gave the same charge to His disciples, and not only so, but "He went about healing all manner of disease, and all manner of sickness. (Matt. iv: 23.) And what then? All the rest indeed were astonished, and marvelled, and said, "Whence, then, hath this man all these things?" (Matt. xiii: 56.) But these, the objects of His beneficence, these said, "He hath a devil," (John x: 20.) and "blasphemeth," (John x: 36.) and "is mad," and is a "deceiver," (John vii: 12, and Matt. xxvii: 63.) Did he therefore cast them away? No, in no wise, but when He heard these sayings, He even yet more signally bestowed His benefits upon them, and went straightway to them that were about to crucify Him, to the intent that He might but only save them. And after He was crucified, what were His words? "Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do." (Luke xxiii: 34.) Both cruelly treated before this, and cruelly treated after this, even to the very latest breath, for them He did every thing, in their behalf He prayed. Yea, and after the Cross itself, what did He not do for their sakes?

Thus is it we ought to love our enemies. This is to love God, Who hath enjoined it, Who hath given it as His law. To imitate Him is to love our enemy. Consider it is not thine enemy thou art benefiting, but thyself; thou art not loving him, but art obeying God. Knowing therefore these things, let us confirm our love one to another, that we may perform this duty perfectly, and attain those good things that are promised in Christ Jesus our Lord, with Whom to the Father, together with the Holy Ghost, be glory, might, and honor, now, and for ever and ever. Amen.

HOMILY VIII.

CHAPTER iv. Verses 1, 2.

"I therefore, the prisoner in the Lord, beseech you to walk worthily of the calling wherewith ye were called, with all lowliness and meekness."

nothing dictatorial, nothing imperious, but all chastened and subdued.

"I therefore," saith he, "the prisoner in the Lord, beseech you to walk worthily of the calling wherewith ye were called." What is it, tell me, thou art beseeching? Is it that thou mayest gain any end for thyself? No, saith he, in no wise; it is that I may save others. And yet surely they who beseech, do so for things which are of importance to themselves. True and this, saith he, is of importance to myself, according to what he says also elsewhere in his writings, "Now we live, if ye stand fast in the Lord;" (1 Thess. iii: 8.) for he ever earnestly desired the salvation of those whom he was instructing.

;

IT is the virtue of teachers to aim not at praise, nor at esteem from those under their authority, but at their salvation, and to do every thing with this object; since the man who should make the other end his aim, would not be a teacher but a tyrant. Surely it is not for this that God set thee over them, that thou shouldest enjoy greater court and service, but that thine own interests should he disregarded, and every one of theirs built up. This is a teacher's duty: such an one was the blessed Paul, a man who was free from all manner of vanity, and was contented to be one of the many, nay more, to be the very least even of "I, the prisoner in the Lord." Great and them. Hence he even calls himself their ser- mighty dignity! Greater than that of king or vant, and so generally speaks in a tone of sup- of consul, or of any other. Hence it is the very plication. Observe him then even now writing | title he uses in writing to Philemon, "As Paul the

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aged, and now a prisoner also of Jesus Christ." Would that I could be at this moment in that (Philemon 9.) For nothing is so glorious as a very spot, (for the bonds are said to be still in bond for Christ's sake, as the chains that were existence,) to behold and admire those men, for bound around those holy hands; more glorious their love of Christ. Would that I could behold is it to be a prisoner for Christ's sake than to be the chains, at which the devils fear and treman Apostle, than to be a Teacher, than to be an ble, but which Angels reverence. Nothing is Evangelist. Is there any that loveth Christ, he more noble than to suffer any evil for Christ's will understand what I am saying. Is any sake. I count not Paul so happy, because he transported and fired with devotion for the was "caught up into Paradise,' (2 Cor. xii: Lord, he knows the power of these bonds. 4.) as because he was cast into the dungeon; I Such an one would rather choose to be a pris- count him not so happy, because he heard oner for Christ's sake, than to have the Heavens "unspeakable words," as because he endured for his dwelling. More glorious than any gold those bonds. I count him not so happy, were the hands he was showing to them, yea, because he was caught up into the third Heathan any royal diadem. Yes, no jewelled tiara ven," (2 Cor. xii: 2.) as I count him happy bound around the head invests it with such for those bonds' sake. For that these are greater glory, as an iron chain for Christ's sake.. Then than those, hear how even he himself knew was the prison more glorious than palaces, yea, this; for he saith not, I who "heard unspeakthan heaven itself. Why say I than palaces? able words," beseech you: but what? "I, the Because it contained a prisoner of Christ. Is prisoner in the Lord, beseech you." Nor yet there any that loveth Christ, he knows the dig-are we to wonder, though he inscribes not this nity of this title, he knows what a virtue is this, he in all his Epistles, for he was not always in knows how great a boon he bestowed upon man- prison, but only at certain times. kind, even this, to be bound for His sake. I deem it more desirable to suffer evil for More glorious this, perhaps to be bound for His Christ's sake, than to receive honor at Christ's sake, than "to sit at His right hand," (Matt. | hands. This is transcendent honor, this is glory xx: 21.) more august this, than to "sit upon that surpasseth all things. If He Himself who the twelve thrones." (Matt. xix: 28.)

became a servant for my sake, and "emptied " (Phil. ii: 7.) His glory, yet thought not Himself so truly in glory, as when He was crucified for my sake, what ought not I to endure? For hear His own words: "Father, glorify Thou Me." (John xvii: 1.) What is this thou art say

thieves and plunderers of graves, thou endurest the death of the accursed; Thou art about to be spit upon and buffeted; and callest Thou this glory? Yes, He saith, for I suffer these things for My beloved ones, and I count them altogether glory. If He who loved the miserable and wretched calleth this glory, not to be on His Father's throne, nor in His Father's glory, but in dishonor,-if this was His glory, and if this He set before the other: much more ought I to regard these things as glory. Oh! those blessed bonds! Oh! those blessed hands which that chain adorned! Not so worthy were Paul's hands when they lifted up and raised the lame man at Lystra, as when they were bound around with those chains. Had I been living in those times, how eagerly would I have embraced them, and put them to the very apple of mine eyes. Never would I have ceased kissing those hands which were counted worthy to be bound for my Lord. Marvellest thou at Paul, when the viper fastened on his hand, and did him no hurt? Marvel not. It reverenced his chain. Yea, and the whole sea reverenced it; for then too [Christ referred to the glorification with His Father which was

And why speak I of human glories? I am ashamed to compare earthly riches and golden attire to these bonds. But forbearing to speak of those great and heavenly glories, even were the thing attended with no reward at all, this alone were a great reward, this an ample recom-ing? Thou art being led to the cross with pense, to suffer these hardships for the sake of the Beloved. They that love, even though it be not God, but man, they know what I am saying, since they are more delighted to suffer for, than to be honored by those they love. But to fully understand these things belongs to the holy company, the Apostles, I mean, and them alone. For hearken to what the blessed Luke saith, (Acts v: 11.) "that they departed from the presence of the council, rejoicing that they were counted worthy to suffer dishonor for the Name." To all others indeed it seems to be foolishness, that to suffer dishonor is to be counted worthy, that to suffer dishonor is to rejoice. But to them that understand the love of Christ, this is esteemed of all things the most blessed. Were any to offer me my choice, the whole Heaven or that chain, that chain I would prefer. Were any to ask whether he should place me on high with the Angels, or with Paul in his bonds, the prison I would choose. Were any about to change me into one of those powers, that are in Heaven, that are round about the throne, or into such a prisoner as this, such a prisoner I would choose to be. Nothing is more blessed than that chain. to follow his humiliation. Cf. Jo. xvii: 5. Phil. ii : 9.—G. A.]

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