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This too is as yet hidden.

He hath made Him far above all created nature, far above all rule and authority. "Far above all rule," he saith.

But what is clear? that through His power we have believed that He hath raised Christ. For to persuade souls, is a thing far more miraculous than to raise a dead body. I will endeavor to make this clear. Hearken then. Christ said to the dead," Lazarus, come forth,' (John xi: 43.) and straightway he obeyed. Peter said, " Tabitha, arise," (Acts ix: 40.) and she did not refuse. He Himself shall speak the word at the last day, and all shall rise, and that so quickly, that "they which are yet alive, shall in no wise precede them that are fallen asleep," (1 Thess. iv: 15.) and all shall come to pass, all run together "in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye." (1 Cor. xv: 52.) But in the matter of believing, it is not thus, but how is it? Hearken then to Him again, how He saith, "How often would I have gathered thy chil-over another, but over all, dren together, and ye would not." (Matt. xxiii: 37.) You perceive that this last is the more difficult. Accordingly, it is upon this that he builds up the whole argument; because by human calculations it is far more difficult to influence the choice, than to work upon nature. And the reason is this, it is because He would thus have us become good of our own will. Thus with good reason does he say,1

Need then indeed is there of the Spirit, of an understanding wise in the knowledge of Him. Need then is there indeed of revelation. Reflect, "how vast is the distance between the nature of man and of God. Yet from this vile estate hath He exalted Him to that high dignity. Nor does He mount by degrees, first one step, then another, then a third. Amazing! He does not simply say, "above," but, "far above;" for God is above those powers which are above. And thither then hath He raised Him, Him that is one of us, brought Him from the lowest point to the supremest sovereignty, to that beyond which there is no other honor. Above all " principality, he says, not, i. e., over one and not

"The exceeding greatness of His power to us-ward who believe."

Yes, when Prophets had availed nothing, nor Angels, nor Archangels, when the whole creation, both visible and invisible, had failed, (the visible lying before us, and without any power to guide us, and much also which is invisible,) then He ordered His own coming, to show us that it was a matter which required Divine power.

"The riches of the glory,"

"Rule and authority and power, and dominion, and every name that is named."

Whatever there be in Heaven, He has become above all. And this is said of Him that was raised from the dead which is worthy of our admiration; for of God the Word, it cannot possibly be, because what insects are in comparison of man, this the whole creation is in comparison of God. If all mankind are to be counted as spittle and were counted as the turn of a balance, consider the invisible powers as insects. But of Him that was one of us, this is great and surprising indeed. For He raised Him up from the very lowest parts of the earth. If all the nations are as a drop, how small a portion then of that drop is a single man! Yet Him hath He made higher than all things, "not only in this world, but also in that which is to come." Therefore powers there are whose names are to us unintelligible, and

"And He put all things in subjection under His feet."

Not simply so set Him above them as to be honored above them, nor by way of comparison with them, but so that He should sit over them as His slaves. Amazing! Awful indeed are these things; every created power hath been made the slave of man by reason of God the Word dwelling in Him.2 For it is possible for a man to be above others, without having others in subjection, but only as preferred before them. But here it is not so. No, "He put all things in subjection under His feet." And not simply put them in subjection, but in the most abject

That is, the unutterable glory; for what lan-unknown. guage shall be adequate to express that glory of which the saints shall then be partakers? None. But verily there is need of grace in order that the understanding may perceive it, and admit even so much as at least one little ray. Some things indeed they knew even before; now he was desirous that they should learn more, and know it more clearly. Seest thou how great things He hath wrought? He hath raised up Christ. Is this a small thing? But look again. He hath set Him at His right hand. And shall any language then be able to represent this? Him that is of the earth, more mute than the fishes, and made the sport of devils, He hath in a moment raised up on high. Truly this is indeed the "exceeding greatness of His power." And behold, whither He hath raised Him. In the heavenly places;

1 Εχόντας.

· Διὰ τὸν ἐνοικοῦντα Θεόν Λόγον. The inhabitation of the Word in our flesh, was a favorite form of speech with the Nestorians, who thereby insinuated that the Word dwelt in 'a' man, or denied Christ's unity of person. Yet the phrase is strictly orthodox, as being derived from John i: 14, and is especially maintained by Cyril, the antagonist of Nestorius, in order to denote that God was in human nature,' vid. Cyril in Schol. 25. Theodor. Eran. ii. Ephræm, Antioch. apud Phot. 229.

subjection, that below which there can be none.
Therefore he adds, "under His feet."
"And gave Him to be Head over all things
to the Church."

Amazing again, whither hath He raised the
Church? as though he were lifting it up by
some engine, he hath raised it up to a vast
height, and set it on yonder throne; for where
the Head is, there is the body also. There is
no interval to separate between the Head and
the body; for were there a separation, then
were it no longer a body, then were it no longer
a head.
"Over all things," he says. What is
meant by "over all things? He hath suffered
neither Angel nor Archangel nor any other
being to be above Him. But not only in this
way hath He honored us, in exalting that which
is of ourselves, but also in that He hath pre-
pared the whole race in common to follow Him,
to cling to Him, to accompany His train.

"Which is His body."

In order then that when you hear of the Head you may not conceive the notion of supremacy only, but also of consolidation, and that you may behold Him not as supreme Ruler only, but as Head of a body.

"The fulness of Him that filleth all in all he says.

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As though this were not sufficient to show the close connection and relationship, what does he add? "The fullness of Christ is the Church." And rightly, for the complement of the head is the body, and the complement of the body is the head. Mark what great arrangement Paul observes, how he spares not a single word, that he may represent the glory of God. "The complement," he says, i. e., the head is, as it were, filled up by the body, because the body is composed and made up of all its several parts, and he introduces Him as having need of each single one and not only of all in common and together; for unless we be many, and one be the hand, and another the foot, and another some other member, the whole body is not filled up. It is by all then that His body is filled up. Then is the head filled up, then is the body rendered perfect, when we are all knit together and united. Perceivest thou then the "riches of the glory of His inheritance? the exceeding greatness of His power towards them that believe? the hope of your calling?"

(Heb. ii: 16.) He took hold of neither princi-
pality, nor power, nor dominion, nor any other
authority, but He took up our nature, and made
it to sit on His right hand. And why do I say,
hath made it sit? He hath made it His gar-
ment1, and not only so, but hath put all things
in subjection under His feet. How many sorts
of death supposest thou? How many souls ?
ten thousand? yea, and ten thousand times
told, but nothing equal to it wilt thou mention.
Two things He hath done, the greatest things.
He hath both Himself descended to the lowest
depth of humiliation, and hath raised up man
to the height of exaltation. He saved him by
His blood. He spoke of the former first, how
that He so greatly humbled Himself.
speaks now of what is stronger than that—a
great thing, the crown of all. Surely, even
had we been counted worthy of nothing, it
were enough. Or, had we been counted worthy
even of this honor, it were enough, without the
slaying of the Son. But where there are the
two, what power of language must it not trans-
cend and surpass? The very resurrection is
not great, when I reflect on these things. It is
of Him that he says, "The God of our Lord
Jesus Christ," not of God the Word.

He

Let us feel awed at the closeness of our relation, let us dread lest any one should be cut off from this body, lest any one should fall from it, lest any one should appear unworthy of it. If any one were to place a diadem about our head, a crown of gold, should we not do every thing that we might seem worthy of the lifeless jewels? But now it is not a diadem that is placed about our head, but, what is far greater, Christ is made our very Head, and yet we pay no regard to it. Yet Angels reverence that Head, and Archangels, and all those powers above. And shall we, which are His body, be awed neither on the one account nor the other? And what then shall be our hope of salvation? Conceive to yourself the royal throne, conceive the excess of the honor. This, at least if we chose, might more avail to startle us, yea, even than hell itself. For, even though hell were not, that we having been honored with such an honor, should be found base and unworthy of it, what punishment, what vengeance must not this carry with it? Think near whom thy Head is seated, (this single consideration is amply sufficient for any purpose whatever,) on whose right hand He is placed, far above all principality, and power, and might. Yet is the body of this Head trampled on by the very devils.

MORAL. Let us reverence our Head, let us reflect of what a Head we are the body,-a Head, to whom all things are put in subjection. According to this representation we ought to be better, yea, than the very angels, and greater than the Archangels, in that we have been honored above them all. God "took not hold ofgical terms, was abused by heretical disputants; as if it implied Angels," as he says in writing to the Hebrews, "but He took hold of the seed of Abraham.'

'Iμáriov. Thus Cyril Alex. speaks of Christ as clothed about'

with our nature. In Success. 2 p. 142. Vid. also Epiph. Ancor. $. 95. Augustine in Psalm 130. 10. This, as well as other theoeither that the manhood of Christ might be put off from His divine

nature, or that it was a mere accidental and unsubstantial medium of manifesting it.

Nay, God forbid it should be thus; for were it of corrupt bodily humors, evil dispositions impair thus, such a body could be His body no longer. us, all these things engender disease, dangerous Thy own head the more respectable of thy serv-disease, disease that wastes. And then there ants reverence, and dost thou subject thy body will be need of that fire, there will be need of to be the sport of them that insult it? How that cutting asunder. For Christ cannot endure sore punishment then shalt thou not deserve? that we should enter into the bride-chamber If a man should bind the feet of the emperor with such a body as this. If He led away, and with bonds and fetters, will he not be liable to cast out the man that was clothed in filthy garthe extremity of punishment? Dost thou ex-ments, what will He not do unto the man who pose the whole body to fierce monsters, and not attaches filth to the body; how will He not disshudder? pose of him?

However, since our discourse is concerning the Lord's body, come, and let us turn our thoughts to it, even that which was crucified, which was nailed, which is sacrificed. If thou art the body of Christ, bear the Cross, for He bore it bear spitting, bear buffetings, bear nails. Such was that Body; that Body "did no sin, neither was guile found in His mouth." (1 Pet. ii: 22.) His hands did every thing for the benefit of them that needed, His mouth uttered not a word of those things which are not convenient. He heard them say, "Thou hast a devil," and He answered nothing.

Further, our discourse is concerning this Body, and as many of us as partake of that Body and taste of that Blood, are partaking of that which is in no wise different from that Body, nor separate. Consider that we taste of that Body that sitteth above, that is adored by Angels, that is next to the Power that is incorruptible. Alas! how many ways to salvation are open to us! He hath made us His own body, He hath imparted to us His own body, and yet not one of these things turns us away from what is evil. Oh the darkness, the depth of the abyss, the apathy! "Set your mind,' saith he, "on the things that are above, where Christ is, seated on the right hand of God." (Col. iii: 1.) And after all this, some set their affections upon money, or licentiousness, others are carried captive by their passions!

I observe many partaking of Christ's Body lightly and just as it happens, and rather from custom and form, than consideration and understanding. When, saith a man, the holy season of Lent sets in, whatever a man may be, he partakes of the mysteries, or, when the day of the Lord's Epiphany2 comes. And yet it is not the Epiphany, nor is it Lent, that makes a fit time for approaching, but it is sincerity and purity of soul. With this, approach at all times; without it, never. "For as often," (1 Cor. xi: 26.) saith he, "as ye do this, ye proclaim the Lord's death," i. e., "ye make a remembrance of the salvation that has been wrought for you, and of the benefits which I have bestowed.' Consider those who partook of the sacrifices under the old Covenant, how great abstinence did they practise? How did they not conduct themselves? What did they not perform? They were always purifying themselves. And dost thou, when thou drawest nigh to a sacrifice, at which the very Angels tremble, dost thou measure the matter by the revolutions of seasons? and how shalt thou present thyself before the judgment-seat of Christ, thou who presumest upon His body with polluted hands and lips? Thou wouldest not presume to kiss a king with an unclean mouth, and the King of heaven dost thou kiss with an unclean soul? It is an outrage. Tell me, wouldest thou choose to come to the Sacrifice with unwashen hands? Do ye not see, that even in our own body, No, I suppose, not. But thou wouldest rather when any part is superfluous and useless, it is choose not to come at all, than come with soiled cut off, is cut away? It is of no use that it has hands. And then, thus scrupulous as thou art belonged to the body, when it is mutilated, in this little matter, dost thou come with soiled when it is mortified, when it is decayed, when soul, and thus dare to touch it? And yet the it is detrimental to the rest. Let us not then hands hold it but for a time, whereas into the be too confident, because we have been once soul it is dissolved entirely. What, do ye not made members of this body. If this body of see the holy vessels so thoroughly cleansed all ours, though but a natural body, nevertheless over, so resplendent? Our souls ought to be suffers amputation, what dreadful evil shall it purer than they, more holy, more brilliant. And not undergo, if the moral principle should fail? why so? Because those vessels are made so for When the body partakes not of this natural our sakes. They partake not of Him that is in food, when the pores are stopped up, then it them, they perceive Him not. But we do;mortifies; when the ducts are closed, then it is palsied. So is it with us also, when we stop our ears, our soul becomes palsied; when we partake not of the spiritual food, when, instead

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2 This was the great festival of the Greek Church, being in reHis birth inclusively. The festival of Christmas, which had been in use in the West from an earlier date, was introduced at Antioch

membrance of our Lord's Baptism, and, as it would appear, of

A. D. 376, with much opposition. Chrysostom, A. D. 387, urges its due celebration in his Hom. de Beato Philogon, and Serm. in Diem Natal. J. C.

yes,

verily. Now then, thou wouldest not choose to make use of a soiled vessel, and dost thou approach with a soiled soul? Observe the vast inconsistency of the thing. At the other times ye come not, no, not though often ye are clean; but at Easter, however flagrant an act ye may have committed, ye come. Oh the force of custom and of prejudice ! In vain is the daily Sacrifice,1 in vain do we stand before the Altar; there is no one to partake. These things I am saying, not to induce you to partake any how, but that ye should render yourselves worthy to partake. Art thou not worthy of the Sacrifice, nor of the participation? If so, then neither art thou of the prayer. Thou hearest the herald,2 standing, and saying, many as are in penitence, all pray.' ."3 As many as do not partake, are in penitence. If thou art one of those that are in penitence, thou oughtest not to partake; for he that partakes not, is one of those that are in penitence. Why then does he say, Depart, ye that are not qualified to pray," whilst thou hast the effrontery to stand still? But no, thou art not of that number, thou art of the number of those who are qualified to partake, and yet art indifferent about it, and regardest the matter as nothing.

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the way: just so also here when the sacrifice is brought forth, and Christ, the Lord's sheep, is sacrificed; when thou hearest the words, "Let us pray together," when thou beholdest the curtains drawn up," then imagine that the Heavens are let down from above, and that the Angels are descending!

As then it is not meet that any one of the uninitiated be present, so neither is it that one of them that are initiated, and yet at the same time defiled. Tell me, suppose any one were invited to a feast, and were to wash his hands, and sit down, and be all ready at the table, and after all refuse to partake; is he not insulting the man who invited him? were it not "As better for such an one never to have come at all? Now it is just in the same way that thou hast come here. Thou hast sung the Hymn with the rest thou hast declared thyself to be of the number of them that are worthy, by not departing with them that are unworthy. Why stay, and yet not partake of the table? I am unworthy, thou wilt say. Then art thou also unworthy of that communion thou hast had in prayers. For it is not by means of the offerings only, but also by means of those canticles that the Spirit descendeth all around. Do we not Look, I entreat: a royal table is set before see our own servants, first scouring the table you, Angels minister at that table, the King with a sponge, and cleaning the house, and Himself is there, and dost thou stand gaping?"4 then setting out the entertainment? This is Are thy garments defiled, and yet dost thou what is done by the prayers, by the cry of the make no account of it? or are they clean? | herald. We scour the Church, as it were, with Then fall down and partake. Every day He a sponge, that all things may be set out in a cometh in to see the guests, and converseth with pure church, that there may be "neither spot them all. Yes, at this moment is he speaking nor wrinkle." (Eph. v: 27.) Unworthy, indeed, to your conscience; "Friends, how stand ye both our eyes of these sights, and unworthy are here, not having on a wedding garment?" He our ears!" And if even a beast," it is said, said not, Why didst thou sit down? no, before "touch the mountain, it shall be stoned.” (Ex. he sat down, He declared him to be unworthy, xix: 13.) Thus then they were not worthy so so much as to come in. He saith not, "Why much as to set foot on it, and yet afterwards didst thou sit down to meat," but, " Why cam- they both came near, and beheld where God est thou in?" And these are the words that had stood. And thou mayest, afterwards, come He is at this very moment addressing to one near, and behold: when, however, He is presand all of us that stand here with such shame-ent, depart. Thou art no more allowed to be less effrontery. For every one, that partaketh here than the Catechumen is. For it is not at all not of the mysteries, is standing here in shame- the same thing never to have reached the mysless effrontery. It is for this reason, that they which are in sins are first of all put forth; for just as when a master is present at his table, it is not right that those servants who have offended him should be present, but they are sent out of

1 [On Chrysostom's view of the eucharistic sacrifice, see Prolegomena, p. 21, note.-G. A.].

4 i. e. the Deacon, Αθανάσιος προστάξας διακόνῳ κηρύξαι εὐχὴν K. T. A. Socr. Hist, ii. 11. id qu. arayivwokeLv, Athan. de fug 24. Vid. Bingh. Antiqu. xiii. 2. and xiv. 5. (The text here seems to be corrupt, Field's text is. As many as are in penitence, all pray," (denonte máνTes) which is evidently inconsistent with the context. The text should probably be, "As many as are in penitence, depart; as many as are not in penitence, pray all." So Field suggests in a note saying, Locus corruptus videtur, sic fortasse redintegrandus: ὅσοι ἐν μετανοίᾳ ἀπέλθετε, ὅσοιμὴ ἐν μετανοια δεήθητε πάντες.-G. Α.]

Vid. Bingh. Antiqu. xv. 2.

teries, and when thou hast reached them, to stumble at them and despise them, and to make thyself unworthy of this thing. One might enter upon more points, and those more awful still; not however to burden your understanding, these will suffice. They who are not brought to their right senses with these, certainly will not be with more.

That I may not then be the means of increas

àudiovpa, curtains before the choir or altar. vid. Chrysost, in Matt. Hom. 84. fin. where, however, it has not the ecclesiastical sense, Epiphan. Epist. 51. 9. apud Hieron. ed. Vallars, where the curtain had a figure of Christ or some Saint, (to which Epiphanius objects.) vid, also Evagr. Hist. vi. 21.

The Angelic Hymn, Holy, Holy, Holy, vid. Chrysost. in 2 Cor, Hom, 18. Cyril. Hieros. Myst. v. 6.

to say,

ing your condemnation, I entreat you, not to forbear coming, but to render yourselves worthy both of being present, and of approaching. Tell me, were any king to give command and "If any man does this, let him partake of my table; say, would ye not do all ye could to be admitted? He hath invited us to heaven, to the table of the great and wonderful King, and do we shrink and hesitate, instead of hastening and running to it? And what then is our hope of salvation? We cannot lay the blame on our weakness; we cannot on our nature. It is indolence and nothing else that renders us unworthy.

So far have I spoken of myself. But may He that pricketh the heart, He that giveth the Spirit of compunction, pierce your hearts, and plant the seeds in the depth of them, that so

through His fear ye may conceive, and bring forth the spirit of salvation, and come near with boldness. For, "thy children," it is said, "are like olive plants round about thy table." (Ps. cxxviii: 3.) Ó, then, let there be nothing old, nothing wild, nothing harsh. For of such sort are the young plants that are fit for fruit, for the beautiful fruit, fruit I mean of the olive-tree. And thriving they are, so as all to be round about the table, and come together here, not in vain or by chance, but with fear and reverence. For thus shall ye behold with boldness even Christ Himself in heaven, and shall be counted worthy of that heavenly kingdom, which may God grant we may all attain, in Jesus Christ, our Lord with whom to the Father, together with the Holy Spirit, be glory, might, honor, now and ever, and for ages of ages. Amen.

HOMILY IV.

CHAPTER. II. VERSES 1-3.

"And you did He quicken, when ye were dead | world, according to the prince of the power of through your trespasses and sins, wherein aforetime ye walked, according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, of the spirit that now worketh in the sons of disobedience; among whom we also all once lived, in the lusts of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh, and of the mind; and were by nature child

ren of wrath even as the rest."

THERE is, we know, a corporal, and there is
also a spiritual, dying. Of the first it is no
crime to partake, nor is there any peril in it,
inasmuch as there is no blame attached to it, for
it is a matter of nature, not of deliberate choice.
It had its origin in the transgression of the first-
created man, and thenceforward in its issue it
passed into a nature, and, at all events, will
quickly be brought to a termination; whereas
this spiritual dying, being a matter of deliber-
ate choice, has criminality, and has no termina-
tion. Observe then how Paul, having already
shown how exceedingly great a thing it is, in so
much that to heal a deadened soul is a far
greater thing than to raise the dead, so now" and such were some of you;
again lays it down in all its real greatness.

the air, of the spirit that now worketh in the
sons of disobedience." You observe the gen-
tleness of Paul, and how on all occasions he
encourages the hearer, not bearing too hard
upon him.
For whereas he had said, Ye have
arrived at the very last degree of wickedness,
(for such is the meaning of becoming dead,)
that he may not excessively distress them,2
(because men are put to shame when their
former misdeeds are brought forward, cancelled
though they be, and no longer attended with
danger,) he gives them, as it were, an accom-
plice, that it may not be supposed that the work
is all their own, and that accomplice a powerful
one. And who then is this? The Devil. He
does much the same also in the Epistle to the
Corinthians, where, after saying, "Be not
deceived, neither fornicators, nor idolaters,"
(1 Cor. vi: 9.) and after enumerating all the
other vices, and adding in conclusion, "shall
inherit the kingdom of God;" he then adds,
" he does not

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And you," saith he "when ye were dead through your trespasses and sins, wherein aforetime ye walked according to the course of this

[The Commentators, except Meyer, refer the vexpoùs to spiritual death, as Chrysostom does. Meyer refers it to "eternal death, the eternal condemnation," and says the vexpoùs is proleptic. He distinctly says it does not refer to physical death, though Ellicott represents him as saying that it does.-G. A.]

say absolutely, "ye were," but " some of you were," that is, thus in some sort were ye. Here the heretics attack us. They tell us that these expressions ("prince of all the power of the air," etc.) are used with reference to God, and letting loose their unbridled tongue, they fit these

[Paul's motive in this passage is probably not what Chrysostom says, but, on the contrary, to show how desperately bad their state was.-G. A.]

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