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Corinthians he said, “With such a one no, not to eat." (1 Cor. v. 11.) But now the majority do not think this a great evil. But all things are confounded and corrupted. With adulterers, with fornicators, with covetous persons, we mix freely, and as a matter of course. If we ought to withdraw ourselves from one who was only supported in idleness, how much more from the others. And that you may know how fearful a thing it was to be separated from the company of the brethren, and what advantage it produces to those who receive reproof with a right mind, hear how that man, who was puffed up with sin, who had proceeded to the extreme of wickedness, who had committed such fornication as is not named even among the heathens, who was insensible of his wound - for this is the excess of perversion-he after all, though such an one, was so bent down and humbled, that Paul said, "Sufficient to such a one is this punishment which was inflicted by the many. Wherefore confirm your love toward him." (2 Cor. ii. 6, 8.) For as a member separated from the rest of the body, so was he at that time.

But the cause, and that from which this was then so terrible, was, because even the being with them was thought by them a great blessing. For like men who inhabit one house, and are under one father, and partake of one table, so did they then dwell in every Church. How great an evil therefore was it to fall from so great love! But now it is not even thought to be a great evil, because neither is it considered any great thing when we are united with one another. What was then in the order of punishment, this, on account of the great coldness of love, now takes place even apart from punishment, and we withdraw from one another causelessly, and from coldness. For it is the cause of all evils that there is no love. This has dissolved all ties, and has disfigured all that was venerable and splendid in the Church, in which we ought to have gloried.

were poor. For he is discoursing concerning the poor, and those who obtained their necessary subsistence from no other source than from the work of their hands. For he has not said, that they may have it from their fathers, but that by working they should eat their own bread. For if I, he says, a herald of the word of doctrine, was afraid to burden you, much more he who does you no service. For this is truly a burden. And it is a burden too, when one does not give with much alacrity; but this is not what he hints at, but as if they were not able to do it easily. For why dost thou not work? For God hath given thee hands for this purpose, not that thou shouldest receive from others, but that thou shouldest impart to others.

But "the Lord," he says, "be with you." This prayer also we may offer for ourselves, if we do the things of the Lord. For hear Christ saying to His disciples, "Go ye and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them into the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world." (Matt. xxviii. 19, 20.) If ye do these things, assuredly. For that the promise is not made to them only, but to those also who walk in their steps, is manifest from His saying "to the end of the world."

What then does He say to those who are not teachers? Each of you, if he will, is a teacher, although not of another, yet of himself. Teach thyself first. If thou teachest to observe all things whatsoever He commanded, even by this means thou wilt have many emulating thee. For as a lamp, when it is shining, is able to light ten thousand others, but being extinguished will not give light even to itself, nor can it lighten other lamps; so also in the case of a pure life, if the light that is in us be shining, we shall make both disciples and teachers numberless, being set before them as a pattern to copy. For neither Great is the confidence of the Teacher, when will the words proceeding from me be able so to from his own good actions he is entitled to benefit the hearers, as your life. For let a man, reprove his disciples. Wherefore also Paul said, tell me, be dear to God, and shining in virtue, "For yourselves know how ye ought to imitate and having a wife; (for it is possible for a man us." (2 Thess. iii. 7.) And he ought to be a having a wife and children and servants and Teacher more of life than of the word. And friends to please God;) will he not be able let no one think that this is said from a spirit much more than I to benefit them all? For me of boasting. For it was as reduced to necessity they will hear once or twice in a month, or not that he spoke it, and with a view to general even once, and even though they have kept what advantage. "For we behaved not ourselves," they have heard as far as the threshold of the he says, "disorderly among you." From this Church, they presently let it drop away from do you not see his humility, in that he calls them: but seeing the life of that man conit, "for nought," and "disorderly behavior"? stantly, they receive great advantage. For when "We did not behave ourselves disorderly among being insulted he insults not again, does he not you," he says, "neither did we eat any man's almost infix and engrave upon the soul of the bread for nought." Here he shows that perhaps insulter the reverence of his meekness? And also they were poor; and tell me not, that they though he does not immediately confess the

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benefit, being ashamed from anger, or put to confusion, yet nevertheless he immediately is made sensible of it. And it is impossible for a man that is insolent, though he be a very beast, to associate with one who is patient of evil, without going away much benefited. For although we do not what is good, we however all praise it and admire it. Again, the wife, if she see her husband gentle, being always with him, receives great advantage, and the child also. It is therefore in the power of every one to be a teacher. For he says, "Build each other up, even as also ye do." (1 Thess. v. 11.) For tell me, has any loss befallen the family? The wife is disturbed, as being weaker, and more extravagant, and fond of ornament; the man if he be a philosopher, and a derider of loss, both consoles her, and persuades her to bear it with fortitude. Tell me, then, will he not benefit her much more than our words? For it is easy to talk, but to act, when we are reduced to the necessity, is in every way difficult. On this account human nature is wont rather to be regulated by deeds. And such is the superiority of virtue, that even a slave often benefits a whole family together with the master.

dren, she delivers thee from brothels, she aids thee to live chastely, she puts a stop to the strong desire of nature. And do thou also benefit her. How? In spiritual things stretch forth thy hand. Whatever useful things thou hast heard, these, like the swallows, bearing off in thy mouth, carry away and place them in the mouth of the mother and the young ones. For how is it not absurd, in other things to think thyself worthy of the preeminence, and to occupy the place of the head, but in teaching to quit thy station. The ruler ought not to excel the ruled in honors, so much as in virtues. For this is the duty of a ruler, for the other is the part of the ruled, but this is the achievement of the ruler himself. If thou enjoyest much honor, it is nothing to thee, for thou receivedst it from others. If thou shinest in much virtue, this is all thine own.

Thou art the head of the woman, let then the head regulate the rest of the body. Dost thou not see that it is not so much above the rest of the body in situation, as in forethought, directing like a steersman the whole of it? For in the head are the eyes both of the body, and of the soul. Hence flows to them both the faculty of seeing, and the power of directing. And the rest of the body is appointed for service, but this is set to command. All the senses have thence their origin and their source. Thence are sent forth the organs of speech, the power of seeing, and of smelling, and all touch. For thence is derived the root of the nerves and of the bones. Seest thou not that it is superior in forethought more than in honor? So let us rule the women; let us surpass them, not by seeking greater honor from them, but by their being more benefited by us.

For not in vain, nor without reason, does Paul constantly command them to practice virtue, and to be obedient to their masters, not so much regarding the service of their masters, as that the word of God and the doctrine be not blasphemed. But when it is not blasphemed, it will soon also be admired. And I know of many families, that they have greatly benefited by the virtue of their slaves. But if a servant placed under authority can improve his master, much more can the master his servants. Divide then with me, I beseech you, this ministry. I address all generally, do you each individual privately, and let each charge himself with the salvation of his neighbors. For that it becomes one to preside over those of his household in these matters, hear where Paul sends women for instruction; "And if they would learn anything, let them ask their own husbands at home (1 Cor. xiv. 35); and he does not lead them to the Teacher. For as in the schools of learning, there are teachers even among the disciples, so also in the Church. For he wishes the Teacher not to be troubled by all. Wherefore? Because then there will be great advantages, not only that the labor will be light to the Teacher, but that each of the disciples also, having taken pains, is soon able to become a teacher, making Let us not therefore regard how we shall have this his concern. wealth, but how we shall present with confidence For see how great a service the wife contrib-to God the souls with which we are entrusted. utes. She keeps the house, and takes care of all things in the house, she presides over her handmaids, she clothes them with her own hands, she causes thee to be called the father of chil

I have shown that they afford us no little benefits, but if we are willing to make them a return in spiritual things, we surpass them. For it is not possible in bodily things to offer an equivalent. For what? dost thou contribute much wealth? but it is she who preserves it, and this care of hers is an equivalent, and thus there is need of her, because many, who had great possessions, have lost all because they had not one to take care of them. But as for the children, you both communicate, and the benefit from each is equal. She indeed in these things rather has the more laborious service, always bearing the offspring, and being afflicted with the pains of childbirth; so that in spiritual things only wilt thou be able to surpass her.

For by regulating them we shall also most highly benefit ourselves. For he who teaches another, although he does nothing else, yet in speaking is affected with compunction, when he sees him

self responsible for those things, on account of is above, from which God grant that we may which he reproves others. Since therefore we never fall, but that having shone in the most benefit both ourselves and them, and through excellent course of life, we may be thought them the household, and this is preeminently worthy with much confidence to see our Lord pleasing to God; let us not be weary of taking Jesus Christ; with whom to the Father, together care both of our own souls, and of those who with the Holy Ghost, be glory, power, and minister to us, that for all we may receive a honor, now and ever, and world without end. recompense, and with much riches may arrive Amen.

at the holy City our mother, the Jerusalem that

THE HOMILIES OF ST. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM,

ARCHBISHOP OF CONSTANTINOPLE,

ON THE

EPISTLES OF ST. PAUL THE APOSTLE

ΤΟ

TIMOTHY, TITUS, AND PHILEMON.

The Oxford Translation Edited, with Additional Notes, by

REV. PHILIP SCHAFF, D.D., LL.D.

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