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God is able to raise, and so ye were raised. Having put off from himself the principaliThen note also His worthiness of belief, "Who ties and the powers." He means the diabolical raised Him," he saith, "from the dead." powers; because human nature had arrayed He now shows the Resurrection. "And you itself in these, or because they had,3 as it were, who sometime were dead through your tres- a hold, when He became Man He put away passes and the uncircumcision of your flesh, from Himself that hold. What is the meaning you, I say, did He quicken together with Him." of " He made a show of them"? And well said For ye lay under judgment of death. But even he so; never yet was the devil in so shameful though ye died, it was a profitable death. Ob- a plight. For whilst expecting to have Him, he serve how again he shows what they deserved lost even those he had; and when That Body in the words he subjoins: was nailed to the Cross, the dead arose. There death received his wound, having met his deathstroke from a dead body. And as an athlete, when he thinks he has hit his adversary, himself is caught in a fatal grasp; so truly doth Christ also show, that to die with confidence is the devil's shame.

Ver. 13, 14, 15. "Having forgiven us all our trespasses; having blotted out the bond written in ordinances that was against us, which was contrary to us: and he hath taken it out of the way, nailing it to the Cross; having put off from himself the principalities and the powers, He made a show of them openly,' triumphing over them in it."

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For he would have done everything to persuade men that He did not die, had he had the Having forgiven us," he saith, "all our tres-power. For seeing that of His Resurrection passes," those which produced that deadness. indeed all succeeding time was proof demonWhat then? Did He allow them to remain? strative; whilst of His death, no other time save No, He even wiped them out; He did not that whereat it happened could ever furnish scratch them out merely; so that they could proof; therefore it was, that He died publicly not be seen. "In doctrines" [ordinances], in the sight of all men, but He arose not pubhe saith. What doctrines? The Faith. It is licly, knowing that the aftertime would bear witenough to believe. He hath not set works ness to the truth. For, that whilst the world against works, but works against faith. And was looking on, the serpent should be slain on what next? Blotting out is an advance upon high upon the Cross, herein is the marvel. For remission; again he saith, "And hath taken it what did not the devil do, that He might die in out of the way." Nor yet even so did He pre-secret? Hear Pilate saying, "Take ye Him serve it, but rent it even in sunder, "by nailing it to His Cross." " Having put off from himself the principalities and the powers, He made a show of them openly, triumphing over them in it." Nowhere has he spoken in so lofty a strain.

Seest thou how great His earnestness that the bond should be done away? To wit, we all were under sin and punishment. He Himself, through suffering punishment, did away with both the sin and the punishment, and He was punished on the Cross. To the Cross then He affixed it; as having power, He tore it asunder. What bond? He means either that which they said to Moses, namely, "All that God hath said will we do, and be obedient" (Ex. xxiv. 3), or, if not that, this, that we owe to God obedience; or if not this, he means that the devil held possession of it, the bond which God made for Adam, saying, "In the day thou eatest of the tree, thou shalt die." (Gen. ii. 17.) This bond then the devil held in his possession. And Christ did not give it to us, but Himself tore it in two, the action of one who remits joyfully.

and the simplifying group of documents changed it into "He hath well said so, for," &c.-J. A. B.]

1 ἐδειγμάτισεν ἐν παρρησίᾳ, 50 commented on below as seemingly to require to be thus translated, "He inflicted disgrace on them through His confidence in dying."

2 Tois dоyμaσw. Theodoret also takes it so, but the use of doy. pariseofe, in ver. 20, agrees better with E. V. "The handwriting [bond] in ordinances," and the Vulgate, Chirographum decreti.


away, and crucify Him, for I find no fault in Him" (John xix. 6), and withstanding them in a thousand ways. And again the Jews said unto Him, "If Thou art the Son of God, come down from the Cross." (Matt. xxvii. 40.) Then further, when He had received a mortal wound, and He came not down, for this reason He was also committed to burial; for it was in His power to have risen immediately but He did not, that the fact might be believed. And yet in cases of private death indeed, it is possible to impute them to a swoon, but here, it is not possible to do this either. For even the soldiers brake not His legs, like those of the others, that it might be made manifest that He was dead. And those who buried The Body are known; and therefore too the Jews themselves seal the stone along with the soldiers. For, what was most of all attended to, was this very thing, that it should not be in obscurity. And_the_witnesses to it are from enemies, from the Jews. Hear them saying to Pilate, "That deceiver said, while he was yet alive, After three days I rise again. Command therefore that the sep

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ulchre " (Matt. xxvi. 63, 64) be guarded by the was in the womb of the Virgin. He said not in soldiers. This was accordingly done, themselves Paradise, but "in Heaven." For deem not that, also sealing it. Hear them further saying even because the subject is earth, it is done on earth; afterwards to the Apostles, "Ye intend to bring he is removed thither, to Heaven, there these this Man's blood upon us.' (Acts v. 28.) He things are transacted, in the midst of Angels: suffered not the very fashion of His Cross to be God taketh up thy soul above, above He harput to shame. For since the Angels have suf-monizeth it anew, He placeth thee near to the fered nothing like it, He therefore doth every- Kingly Throne. He is formed in the water, he thing for this, showing that His death achieved receiveth spirit instead of a soul. And after he a mighty work. There was, as it were, a single is formed, He bringeth to him, not beasts, but combat. Death wounded Christ: but Christ, demons, and their prince, and saith, "Tread being wounded, did afterwards kill death. He that seemed to be immortal, was destroyed by a mortal body; and this the whole world saw. And what is truly wonderful is, that He committed not this thing to another. But there was made again a second bond of another kind than the former.


upon serpents and scorpions." (Luke x. 19.) He saith not, "Let Us make man in our image, and after our likeness" (Gen. i. 26), but what? " He giveth them to become the sons of God; but of God," he saith," they were born." (John i. 12, 13.) Then that thou give no ear to the serpent, straightway he teaches thee to say, Beware then lest we be condemned by this, "I renounce thee," that is, "whatsoever thou after saying, I renounce Satan, and array my- sayest, I will not hear thee." Then, that he self with Thee, O Christ. Rather however this destroy thee not by means of others, it is said," should not be called "a bond," but a covenant." and thy pomp, and thy service, and thy angels." For that is "a bond," whereby one is held He hath set him no more to keep Paradise, but accountable for debts: but this is a covenant. to have his citizenship in heaven. For straightIt hath no penalty, nor saith it, If this be done, or if this be not done: what Moses said when he sprinkled the blood of the covenant, by this God also promised everlasting life. All this is a covenant. There, it was slave with master, here, it is friend with friend: there, it is said, "In the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt die" (Gen. ii. 17); an immediate threatening; but here is nothing of the kind. God arrives, and here is nakedness, and there was nakedness; there, however, one that had sinned was made naked, because he sinned, but here, one is made naked, that he may be set free. Then, man put off the glory which he had; now, he puts off the old man; and before going up (to the contest), puts him off as easily, as it were his garments.1 He is anointed, as wrestlers about to enter the lists. For he is born at once; and as that first man was, not by little and little, but immediately. (He is anointed,) not as the priests of old time, on the head alone, but rather in more abundant measure. For he indeed was anointed on the head, the right ear, the hand (Lev. viii. 23, 24); to excite him to obedience, and to good works; but this one, all over. For he cometh not to be instructed merely; but to wrestle, and to be exercised; he is advanced to another creation. For when one confesses (his belief) in the life everlasting," he has confessed a second creation. He took dust from the earth, and formed man (Gen. ii. 7): but now, dust no longer, but the Holy Spirit; with This he is formed, with this harmonized, even as Himself


! See St. Cyril, Catech. XX. See St. Cyril, Catech. XXI.

In the Apostles' Creed, recited at Baptism.

way when he cometh up he pronounceth these
words, "Our Father, Which art in Heaven,
Thy will be done, as in Heaven, so on earth."
The plain falleth not on thy sight, thou seest
not tree, nor fountain, but straightway thou
takest into thee the Lord Himself, thou art
mingled with His Body, thou art intermixed
with that Body that lieth above, whither the
devil cannot approach. No woman is there, for
him to approach, and deceive as the weaker;
for it is said, "There is neither female, nor male."
(Gal. iii. 28.) If thou go not down to him, he
will not have power to come up where thou art ;
for thou art in Heaven, and Heaven is unap-
proachable by the devil. It hath no tree with
knowledge of good and evil, but the Tree of
Life only. No more shall woman be formed
from thy side, but we all are one from the side
of Christ. For if they who have been anointed
of men take no harm by serpents, neither wilt
thou take any harm at all, so long as thou art
anointed; that thou mayst be able to grasp the
Serpent and choke him, " to tread upon serpents
and scorpions." (Luke x. 19.) But as the gifts
are great, so is the punishment great also. It is
not possible for him that hath fallen from Para-

Old Lat. "thou art." The former clause may be," think not,
because the earth is under thee, that thou art in earth."
becoming, as it were, the life of the new man.
5 áντíνXov пvevua, i.e. as Adam received a soul. The Spirit
See on Rom. viii. II.

onoi, the person who directs the catechumen.

7 No meaning appears in this, οὐκ ἐπ ̓ ὄψιν πίπτει τὸ παιδίον, though old Lat. also has, "The child falleth not on his face"; but we have only to read wedtov, as in a doubtful passage of Hom. xvi. on Rom. Tr. p. 467, note. This has been done in the text, not to spoil so beautiful a passage. [There may be a fanciful notion of the person newly baptized and thereby regenerated ("formed in the water") as a child. Upon coming up and pronouncing the Lord's Prayer, "the child does not fall on his face." The meaning will still be obscure, but the whole passage is highly fanciful, and there is thus at least a possible sense.-J. A. B.]

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dise, to dwell" in front of Paradise" (Gen. iii. throughout His will. Let us become well-pleas24), nor to reascend thither from whence we ing to God, that we may be able both to escape have fallen. But what after this? Hell, and the punishment, and to obtain the good things the worm undying. But far be it that any of eternal, of which may we all be counted worthy, us should become amenable to this punishment! through the grace and love toward man, &c: but living virtuously, let us earnestly strive to do


COLOSSIANS ii. 16-19.

"Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or bread, and Pentecost," but "in part of a feast": in respect of a feast day, or a new moon, or a sabbath day which are a shadow of the things to come; but the body is Christ's. Let no man rob you of your prize by a voluntary humility and worshiping of the Angels, dwelling in the things which he hath not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind, and not holding fast the Head, from whom all the body being supplied and knit together, through the joints and bands, increaseth with the

increase of God."

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for they ventured not to keep the whole; and if they did observe it, yet not so as to celebrate the feast. "In part," he saith, showing that the greater part is done away. For even if they did keep sabbath, they did not do so with precision. "Which are a shadow of the things to Come"; he means, of the New Covenant; "but the body" is "Christ's." Some persons here punctuate thus, "but the body" is "of Christ," HAVING first said darkly, "Take heed lest i.e. the truth is come in with Christ: others there shall be any one that maketh spoil of you thus; "The Body of Christ let no man adjudge after the tradition of men (ver. 8); and away from you," that is, thwart you of it. The again, further back, "This,. I say, that no one term Kaтaßpаßevovat, is employed when the may delude you with persuasiveness of speech" victory is with one party, and the prize with (ver. 4); thus preoccupying their soul, and another, when though a victor thou art thwarted. working in it anxious thoughts; next, having in- Thou standest above the devil and sin; why serted those benefits, and increased this effect, dost thou again subject thyself to sin? Therehe then brings in his reproof last, and says, fore he said that "he is a debtor to fulfill the "Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or whole law" (Gal. v. 3); and again, "Is Christ" in drink, or in respect of a feast day, or a new found to be "the minister of sin" (Gal. ii. 17) ? moon, or a sabbath day." Seest thou how he which he said when writing to the Galatians. depreciates them? If ye have obtained such When he had filled them with anger through things, he saith, why make yourselves accounta-saying, "adjudge away from you," then he ble for these petty matters? And he makes light begins; "being a voluntary," he saith, "in of them, saying, "or in the part of a feast day," humility and worshiping of Angels, intruding for in truth they did not retain the whole of the into things he hath not seen, vainly puffed up former rule, or a new moon, or a sabbath by his fleshly mind." How "in humility," or day." He said not, "Do not then observe how "puffed up"? He shows that the whole them," but, "let no man judge you." He arose out of vainglory. But what is on the showed that they were transgressing, and whole the drift of what is said? There are undoing, but he brought his charge against some who maintain that we must be brought others. Endure not those that judge you, near by Angels, not by Christ, that were too he saith, nay, not so much as this either, but he argues with those persons, almost stopping their mouths, and saying, Ye ought not to judge. But he would not have reflected on these. He said not "in clean and unclean," nor yet "in feasts of Tabernacles, and unleavened

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great a thing for us. Therefore it is that he turns over and over again what has been done by Christ, "through the Blood of His Cross" (c. i. 20); on this account he says that "He suffered for us"; that " He loved us." (1 Pet. ii. 21.) And besides in this very same thing, moreover, they were elevated afresh. And he said not "introduction by," but "worshiping of" Angels. "Intruding into things he hath not

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"Not of any value against the indulgence of the flesh." For God hath given it honor, but they use it not with honor. Thus, when it is a doctrine, he knows how to call it honor. They dishonor the flesh, he says, depriving it, and stripping it of its liberty, not giving leave to rule it with its will. God hath honored the flesh. Chap. iii. ver. 1. "If then ye were raised together with Christ."

seen." (Eph. ii. 4.) For he hath not seen that even though they have a show of wisdom, Angels, and yet is affected as though he had. let us turn away from them. For he may seem Therefore he saith, "Puffed up by his fleshly to be a religious person, and modest, and to mind vainly," not about any true fact. About have a contempt for the body. this doctrine, he is puffed up, and puts forward a show of humility. By his carnal mind, not spiritual; his reasoning is of man. "And not holding fast the Head," he saith, "from whom all the body." All the body thence hath its being, and its well-being. Why, letting go the Head, dost thou cling to the members? If thou art fallen off from it, thou art lost. "From whom all the body." Every one, be he who he may, thence has not life only, but also even connection. All the Church, so long as she holds The Head, increaseth; because here is no more passion of pride and vainglory, nor invention of human fancy.

Mark that "from1 whom," meaning the Son. "Through the joints and bands," he says, "being supplied, and knit together, increases with the increase of God"; he means, that which is according to God, that of the best life.

Ver. 20. "If ye died with Christ." He puts that in the middle, and on either side, expressions of greater vehemence. “If ye died with Christ from the elements of the world," he saith, "why as though living in the world do ye subject yourselves to ordinances?" This is not the consequence, for what ought to have been said is, "how as though living are ye subject to those elements?" But letting this pass, what saith he?

He brings them together, having above established that He died. Therefore he saith, "If then ye were raised together with Christ, seek the things that are above." No observances are there. "Where Christ is seated on the right hand of God." Wonderful! Whither hath he led our minds aloft! How hath he filled them with mighty aspiration! It was not enough to say, "the things that are above," nor yet, "where Christ is," but what? "seated on the right hand of God." From that point he was preparing them henceforward to see the earth.

Ver. 2, 3, 4. "Set your mind on the things that are above, not on the things that are upon the earth. For ye died, and your life is hid with Christ in God. When Christ who is your life shall be manifested, then shall ye also with Him be manifested in glory."

This is not your life, he saith, it is some other one. He is now urgent to remove them, and Ver. 21, 22. "Handle not, nor taste, nor insists upon showing that they are seated above, touch; all which things are to perish with the and are dead; from both considerations estabusing; after the precepts and doctrines of men." lishing the position, that they are not to seek Ye are not in the world, he saith, how is it ye the things which are here. For whether ye be are subject to its elements? how to its observ- dead, ye ought not to seek them; or whether ances? And mark how he makes sport of them, ye be above, ye ought not to seek them. Doth "touch not, handle not, taste not," as though Christ appear? Neither doth your life. It is they were cowards and keeping themselves clear in God, above. What then? When shall we of some great matters, "all which things are to perish with the using." He has taken down the swollenness of the many, and added, "after the precepts and doctrines of men." What sayest thou? Dost thou speak even of the Law? Henceforth it is but a doctrine of men, after the time is come. Or, because they adulterated it, or else, he alludes to the Gentile institutions. The doctrine, he says, is altogether of man.

Ver. 23. "Which things have indeed a show of wisdom in will worship, and humility, and severity to the body; but are not of any value against the indulgence of the flesh."


Show," he saith; not power, not truth. So

so is rightly omitted in Rev. Ver. The participle must then take a

different sense, such as dwelling in the things which he hath seen, poring over and confining himself to these. The expression is obscure, and was simplified by inserting "not." Comp. Meyer. J. A. B.]

1, which makes Him a source of action in Himself.

2 kaipov, i.e. the time of Christ's Advent, or "after its time."

live? When Christ shall be manifested, who is your life; then seek ye glory, then life, then enjoyment.

This is to prepare the way for drawing them off from pleasure and ease. Such is his wont: when establishing one position, he darts off to another; as, for instance, when discoursing of those who at supper were beforehand with one another, he all at once falls upon the observance of the Mysteries. For he hath a great rebuke when it is administered unsuspected. "It is hid," he saith, from you. "Then shall ye also with Him be manifested." So that, now, ye do not appear. See how he hath removed them into the very heaven. For, as I said, he is always bent upon showing that they have the

3 See his Comment on 1 Cor. xi. 17-21. Hom. xxvii, on 1 Cor., where he says that the supper referred to was "when the solemn service was completed, after the Communion of the Mysteries."

very same things which Christ hath; and through all his Epistles, the tenor is this, to show that in all things they are partakers with Him. Therefore he uses the terms, Head, and Body, and does everything to convey this to them.

than a stone doth things of clay. And, if ye will, let us give an outline of the former life, and see whether all was not earth and water, and full of fluctuation and dust, and instability, and flowing away.

If therefore we shall then be manifested, let And if ye will, let us scrutinize not the former us not grieve, when we enjoy not honor: if this things, but the present, and see whether we life be not life, but it be hidden, we ought to shall not find everything that is, mere dust and live this life as though dead. "Then shall ye water. For what wilt thou tell me of? authority also," he saith, "with Him be manifested in and power? for nothing in this present life is glory." "In glory," he said, not merely "mani- thought to be more enviable than these. But fested." For the pearl too is hidden so long as sooner may one find the dust when on the air it is within the oyster. If then we be treated stationary, than these things; especially now. with insult, let us not grieve; or whatever it be For to whom are they not under subjection? we suffer; for this life is not our life, we are To those who are lovers of them; to eunuchs; strangers and sojourners. "For ye died," he to those who will do anything for the sake of saith. Who is so witless, as for a corpse, dead money; to the passions of the populace; to and buried, either to buy servants, or build the wrath of the more powerful. He who was houses, or prepare costly raiment? None. yesterday up high on his tribunal,' who had his Neither then do ye; but as we seek one thing heralds shouting with thrilling voice, and many only, namely, that we be not in a naked state, to run before, and haughtily clear the way for so here too let us seek one thing and no more. him through the forum, is to-day mean and low, Our first man is buried: buried not in earth, and of all those things bereft and bare,.like dust but in water; not death-destroyed, but buried blast-driven, like a stream that hath passed by. by death's destroyer, not by the law of nature, And like as the dust is raised by our feet, so but by the governing command that is stronger truly are magistracies also produced by those than nature. For what has been done by nature, who are engaged about money, and in the whole may perchance be undone; but what has been of life have the rank and condition of feet; done by His command, never. Nothing is more and like as the dust when it is raised occupies blessed than this burial, whereat all are rejoicing, a large portion of the air, though itself be but a both Angels, and men, and the Lord of Angels. small body, so too doth power; and like as the At this burial, no need is there of vestments, nor dust blindeth the eyes, so too doth the pride of of coffin, nor of anything else of that kind. power bedim the eyes of the understanding. Wouldest thou see the symbol of this? I will But what? Wilt thou that we examine that show thee a pool wherein the one was buried, object of many prayers, wealth? Come, let us the other raised; in the Red Sea the Egyptians examine it in its several parts. It hath luxury, were sunk beneath it, but the Israelites went up it hath honors, it hath power. First then, if from out of it; in the same act he buries the thou wilt, let us examine luxury. Is it not dust? one, generates the other. yea, rather, it goeth by swifter than dust, for the Marvel not that generation and destruction pleasure of luxurious living reacheth only to the take place in Baptism; for, tell me, dissolving tongue, and when the belly is filled, not to the and cementing, are they not opposite? It is tongue even. But, saith one, honors are of evident to all. Such is the effect of fire; for themselves pleasant things. Yet what can be fire dissolves and destroys wax, but it cements less pleasant than that same honor, when it is together metallic earth, and works it into gold. rendered with a view to money? When it is So in truth here also, the force of the fire, hav-not from free choice and with a readiness of ing obliterated the statue of wax, has displayed a golden one in its stead; for in truth before the Bath we were of clay, but after it of gold. Whence is this evident? Hear him saying, "The first man is of the earth, earthy, the second man is the Lord from heaven." (1 Cor. xv. 47.) I spoke of a difference as great as that between clay and gold; but greater still do I find the difference between heavenly and earthy; not so widely do clay and gold differ, as do things earthy and heavenly. Waxen we were, and clay-formed. For the flame of lust did much more melt us, than fire doth wax, and any chance temptation did far rather shatter ustioned in the recent Paris Edition.

mind, it is not thou that reapest the honor, but thy wealth. So that this very thing makes the man of wealth, most of all men, dishonored. For, tell me; suppose all men honored thee, who hadst a friend; the while confessing that thou, to be sure, wert good for nothing, but that they were compelled to honor thee on his account; could they possibly in any other way have so dishonored thee? So that our wealth is the cause of dishonor to us, seeing it is more honored than are its very possessors, and a

1 Montfaucon thinks this refers to Eutropius, whose disgrace occasioned two Homilies of St. Chrys. Ben. t. iii. This is ques

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