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makes you fear condemnation, this fear attaches equally to all the parts. If a transgression of the whole is not punishable, much less is the transgression of a part; on the other hand, if the latter be punishable, much more is the former. But if we are bound to keep the whole, we are bound to disobey Christ, or by obedience to Him become transgressors of the Law. If it ought to be kept, those who keep it not are transgressors, and Christ will be found to be the cause of this transgression, for He annulled the Law as regards these things Himself, and bid others annul it. Do you not understand what these Judaizers are compassing? They would make Christ, who is to us the Author of righteousness, the Author of sin, as Paul says, Therefore Christ is the minister of sin." Having thus reduced the proposition to an absurdity, he had nothing further to do by way of overthrowing it, but was satisfied with the simple protestation,

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Ver. 17. "God forbid:" for shamelessness and irreverence need not be met by processes of reasoning, but a mere protest is enough. Ver. 18. 66 For if I build up again those things. which I destroyed, I prove myself a transgressor."2

resolved the matter to a necessary absurdity. And mark how earnestly and strongly he argues. For if, he says, it behooved us not to abandon the Law, and we have so abandoned it for Christ's sake, we shall be judged. Wherefore do you urge this upon Peter, who is more intimately acquainted with it than any one? Hath not God declared to him, that an uncircumcised man ought not to be judged by circumcision; and did he not in his discussion with the Jews rest his bold opposition upon the vision which he saw? Did he not send from Jerusalem unequivocal decrees upon this subject? Paul's object is not therefore to correct Peter, but his animadversion required to be addressed to him, though it was pointed at the disciples; and not only at the Galatians, but also at others who labor under the same error with them. For though few are now circumcised, yet, by fasting and observing the sabbath with the Jews, they equally exclude themselves from grace. If Christ avails not to those who are only circumcised, much more is peril to be feared where fasting and sabbatizing are observed, and thus two commandments of the Law are kept in the place of one. And this is aggravated by a consideration of time for they Observe the Apostle's discernment; his opposo acted at first while the city and temple and nents endeavored to show, that he who kept not other institutions yet existed; but these who the Law was a transgressor, but he retorts with the punishment of the Jews, and the destruction of the city before their eyes, observe more precepts of the Law than the others did, what apology can they find for such observance, at the very time when the Jews themselves, in spite of their strong desire, cannot keep it? Thou hast put on Christ, thou hast become a member of the Lord, and been enrolled in the heavenly city, and dost thou still grovel in the Law? How is it possible for thee to obtain the kingdom? Listen to Paul's words, that the observance of the Law overthrows the Gospel, and learn, if thou wilt, how this comes to pass, and tremble, and shun this pitfall. Wherefore dost thou keep the sabbath, and fast with the Jews? Is it that thou fearest the Law and abandonment of its letter? But thou wouldest not entertain this fear, didst thou not disparage faith as weak, and by itself powerless to save. A fear to omit the sabbath plainly shows that you fear the Law as still in force; and if the Law is needful, it is so as a whole, not in part, nor in one commandment only; and if as a whole, the righteousness which is by faith is ["I myself (Paul now politely chooses the first person but little by little shut out. If thou keep the sab-means Peter) stand convicted of transgression if I build again (as thou dost now at Antioch) the very law of Moses which I pulled bath, why not also be circumcised? and if cir-down (as thou didst at Caesarea by divine command and at first at Antioch) and thus condemn my own former conduct."-Schaff cumcised, why not also offer sacrifices? If the Law is to be observed, it must be observed as a whole, or not at all. If omitting one part

[The Epistle to the Galatians was written in the year A. D. 56 er 57 and the destruction of Jerusalem occurred in A. D. 70.-G. A.]

"I

the

the argument upon them, and shows that he
who did keep the Law was a transgressor, not
merely of faith, but of the Law itself.
build up again the things which I destroyed,"
that is, the Law; he means as follows:
Law has confessedly ceased, and we have aban-
doned it, and betaken ourselves to the salvation
which comes of faith. But if we make a point
of setting it up again, we become by that very
act transgressors, striving to keep what what
God has annulled. Next he shows how it has
been annulled.

Ver. 19. the Law.'

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"For 13 through the Law died unto

This may be viewed in two ways; it is either the law of grace which he speaks of, for he is wont to call this a law, as in the words, "For the law of the Spirit of life made me free: (Rom. viii: 2.) or it is the old Law, of which he says, that by the Law itself he has become dead to the Law. That is to say, the Law itself has taught me no longer to obey itself, and therefore if I do so, I shall be transgressing even its teaching.

in Pop. Com.-G. A.J

'['ey yap-In my case the process has been this, using his own experience.-G.A]

"["This second interpretation of Chrysostom is undoubtedly the correct one (though he errs in elucidating the relation of dia by referring to Deut. xviii: 15.) comp. Rom. vii: 4, 6; The law itself led him to Christ, by developing the sense of sin and the need of redemption."-Schaff in Pop. Com.-G. A.]

How, in what way nas it so taught? Moses sin; and as Christ suffered bodily death, so says, speaking of Christ, "The Lord God will does Paul a death to sin. "Mortify," says he raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of "your members which are upon the earth; forthee of thy brethren, like unto me; unto Him nication, uncleanness, passion;" (Col. iii: 5.) shall ye hearken." (Deut. xviii: 15.) There- and again, "our old man was crucified," (Rom. fore they who do not obey Him, transgress the vi: 6.) which took place in the Bath.3 After Law. Again, the expression, "I through the which, if thou remainest dead to sin, thou livLaw died unto the Law," may be understood est to God, but if thou let it live again, thou in another sense: the Law commands all its art the ruin of thy new life. This however did precepts to be performed, and punishes the not Paul, but continued wholly dead; if then, transgressor; therefore we are all dead to it, he says, I live to God a life other than that in for no man has fulfilled it. Here observe, the Law, and am dead to the Law, I cannot how guardedly he assails it; he says not, "the possibly keep any part of the Law. Consider Law is dead to me;" but, "I am dead to the how perfect was his walk, and thou wilt be Law;" the meaning of which is, that, as it is transported with admiration of this blessed soul. impossible for a dead corpse to obey the com- He says not, "I live," but, "Christ liveth mands of the Law, so also is it for me who in me; "who is bold enough to utter such have perished by its curse, for by its word words? Paul indeed, who had harnessed himself am I slain. Let it not therefore lay commands to Christ's yoke, and cast away all worldly on the dead, dead by its own act, dead not in body only, but in soul, which has involved the death of the body. This he shows in what follows:

Ver. 19, 20. "That I might live unto God,1I have been crucified with Christ."

Having said, "I am dead," lest it should be objected, how then dost thou live? he adds the cause of his living, and shows that when alive the Law slew him, but that when dead Christ through death restored him to life. He shows the wonder to be twofold; that by Christ both the dead was begotten into life, and that by means of death. He here means the immortal life, for this is the meaning of the words, "That I might live unto God I am crucified with Christ." 1 How, it is asked, can a man now living and breathing have been crucified? That Christ hath been crucified is manifest, but how canst thou have been crucified, and yet live? He explains it thus;

Ver. 20. "Yet I live; and yet no longer I, but Christ liveth in me.”

In these words, "I am crucified with Christ," he alludes to Baptism,3 and in the words "nevertheless I live, yet not I," our subsequent manner of life whereby our members are mortified. By saying "Christ liveth in me," he means nothing is done by me, which Christ disapproves; for as by death he signifies not what is commonly understood, but a death to sin; so by life, he signifies a delivery from sin. For a man cannot live to God, otherwise than by dying to

["That I might live unto God" is not to be joined to "I have been crucified with Christ" as Chrysostom, for it belongs to the completeness of the thought introduced by yap ver. 19.-Meyer-G AJ 2 [This is the rendering of the Rev. Ver, though the American Committee has, "And it is no longer I that live ;" and correctly so. For as Dr. Schaff says, The reading of the Rev. Ver. (and the Author. Ver. too) conveys a beautiful and true idea, but it is grammatically incorrect, since the original has no "nevertheless" and no

"yet." Pop. Com. on Gal, and Companion to the Greek Testat ment, p. 453.-G. A.]

[Chrysostom held baptismal regeneration.-G. A.]

things, and was paying universal obedience to
His will, says not, "I live to Christ," but what
is far higher, "Christ liveth in me." As sin,
when it has the mastery, is itself the vital prin-
ciple, and leads the soul whither it will, so,
when it is slain and the will of Christ obeyed,
this life is no longer earthly, but Christ liveth,
that is, works, has mastery within us.
His say-
ing, "I am crucified with Him" "I no longer
live," but "am dead," seeming incredible to
many, he adds,

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For

The foregoing, says he, relates to our spiritual life, but this life of sense too, if considered, will be found owing to my faith in Christ. as regards the former Dispensation and Law, I had incurred the severest punishment, and had long ago perished, "for all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God." (Rom. iii: 23.) And we, who lay under sentence, have been liberated by Christ, for all of us are dead, if not in fact, at least by sentence; and He has delivered us from the expected blow. When the Law had accused, and God condemned us, Christ came, and by giving Himself up to death, rescued us all from death. So that "the life which I now live in the flesh, I live in faith." Had not this been, nothing could have averted a destruction as general as that which took place at the flood, but His advent arrested the wrath of God, and caused us to live by faith. That such is his meaning appears from what follows. After saying, that "the life which I now live in the flesh, I live in faith," he adds,

Ver. 20. "In the Son of God, Who loved me, and gave Himself up for me."

How is this, O Paul! why dost thou appropriate a general benefit, and make thine own what was done for the whole world's sake? for

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faith, shall their want of faith make of none
effect the faithfulness of God? God forbid :
yea let God be found true, but every man a
liar." (Rom. iii:
3, 4.) When He so loved
thee as to give Himself up to bring thee who
wast without hope to a life so great and blessed,
canst thou, thus gifted, have recourse to things
gone by? His reasoning being completed, he
concludes with a vehment asseveration, saying,
Ver. 21. "I do not make void the grace of
God."3

Let those, who even now Judaize and adhere to the Law, listen to this, for it applies to them. Ver. 21. For if righteousness is through the Law, then Christ died for naught."

hesays not, "Who loved us," but, "Who loved Paul intimates, when he says, speaking about me." And besides the Evangelist says, "God the Jews, "For what if some were without so loved the world;" (John iii: 16.) and Paul himself," He that spared not His own Son, but delivered Him up, not for Paul only, but, "for us all;" (Rom. viii: 32.) and again, "that He might purify unto himself a people for his own possession, (Tit. ii: 14.) But considering the desperate condition of human nature, and the ineffably tender solicitude of Christ, in what He delivered us from, and what He freely gave us, and kindled by the yearning of affection towards Him, he thus expresses himself. Thus the Prophets often appropriate to themselves Him who is God of all, as in the words, "O God, thou art my God, early will I seek Thee." (Psalm lxiii: 1.) Moreover, this lan- | guage teaches that each individual justly owes as a great debt of gratitude to Christ, as if He had come for his sake alone, for He would not have grudged this His condescension though but for one, so that the measure of His love to each is as great as to the whole world. Truly the Sacrifice was offered for all mankind,' and was sufficient to save all, but those who enjoy the blessing are the believing only. Nevertheless it did not deter Him from His so great condescension, that not all would come; but He acted after the pattern of the supper in the Gospel, which He prepared for all, (Luke xiv: 16.) yet when the guests came not, instead of withdrawing the viands, He called in others. So too He did not despise that sheep, though one only, which had strayed from the ninety and nine. (Mat. xviii: 12.) This too in like manner St.

What can be more heinous than this sin? 4 what more fit to put one to shame than these words? Christ's death is a plain proof of the inability of the Law to justify us; and if it does justify, then is His death superfluous. Yet how could it be reasonable to say that has been done heedlessly and in vain which is so awful, so surpassing human reason, a mystery so ineffable, with which Patriarchs travailed, which Prophets foretold, which Angels gazed on with consternation, which all men confess as the summit of the Divine tenderness? Reflecting how utterly out of place it would be if they should say that so great and high a deed had been done superfluously, (for this is what their conduct came to,) he even uses violent language against them, as we find in the words which follow.

CHAPTER III.

VERSE I.

“O foolish Galatians, who did bewitch you, before course more confidently, and draws a compariwhose eyes Jesus Christ was openly set forth, cruci-son between faith and the Law. At the outset

fied?"

he said, "I marvel that ye are so quickly removing;" (Gal. i: 6.) but here, "O foolish Galatians;" then, his indignation was in its

HERE he passes to another subject; in the former chapters he had shown himself not to be an Apostle of men, nor by men, nor in want of Apostolic instruction. Now, having established his authority as a teacher, he proceeds to dis-assigned for it in the latter part of the verse, the perverse conduct

["Chrysostom teaches that God foreordained all men to holiness and salvation and that Christ died for all and is both willing and able to save all, but not against their will."-Schaff, Proleg. p. 20. -G. A.]

["Paul addresses himself again directly to the Galatians with an expression of indignant surprise at their relapse into Judaism and passes from the historical to the doctrinal part of the Epistle, from the apology of his apostolic authority to the defense of his apostolic teaching."-Schaff in Pop. Com.-G. A.]

3

["Negative side of the life which Paul (from ver. 19) has described as his own. By this negative, with the grave reason

of Peter is completely condemned."-Meyer.-G. A.]
"["This blasphemous inference gives the finishing stroke to
the false Judaizing gospel.

"This collision between Peter and Paul furnished material to the Ebionites for an attack upon Paul, to the Gnostics for an attack upon the Jewish apostles and to Porphyry for an attack upon Christianity itself [as well as to Baur and the Tübingen school for an attack in modern times from a different standpoint]. But Christianity has surveyed all these attacks and gains new strength from every conflict."-Schaff.-G. A.]

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Ver. 1.

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birth, but now, after his refutation of the ply defects, but to mutilate what existed. For charges against himself, and his proofs, it bursts envy, far from supplying what is wanting, subforth. Let not his calling them "foolish" sur- tracts from what is complete, and vitiates the prise you; for it is not a transgression of whole. of whole. And he speaks thus, not as if envy had Christ's command not to call one's brother a any power of itself, but meaning, that the fool, but rather a strict observance of it. For teachers of these doctrines did so from envious it is not said simply, "Whosoever shall say to motives. his brother, Thou fool," (Mat. v: 22.) but, "Before whose eyes Jesus Christ was whosoever shall do so, "without a cause.' openly set forth, crucified." And who more fittingly than they could so be Yet was He not crucified in Galatia, but at called, who after so great events, adhered to Jerusalem. His reason for saying, among past things, as if nothing else had ever hap- you,' "3 is to declare the power of faith to see pened? If on this account Paul is to be called events which are at a distance. He says not, a reviler," Peter may likewise, on account" crucified," but, "openly set forth crucified,' of Annanias and Sapphira, be called a homi- signifying that by the eye of faith they saw cide; but as it would be wildness to do so in more distinctly than some who were present as that case, much more in this. Moreover it is spectators. For many of the latter received no to be considered, that this vehemence is not benefit, but the former, who were not eye-witused at the beginning, but after these evidences nesses, yet saw it by faith more clearly. These and proofs, which, rather than Paul himself, words convey both praise and blame; praise, might now be held to administer the rebuke. for their implicit acceptance of the truth; For after he had shown that they rejected the blame, because Him whom they had seen, for faith, and made the death of Christ to be with- their sakes, stripped naked, transfixed, nailed out a purpose, he introduces his reproof, which, to the cross, spit upon, mocked, fed with vineeven as it is, is less severe than they merited. gar, upbraided by thieves, pierced with a spear; Observe too how soon he stays his arm; for he (for all this is implied in the words, "openly adds not, Who has seduced you? who has per- set forth, crucified,'') Him had they left, and verted you? who has been sophistical with you? betaken themselves to the Law, unshamed by but, "Who hath cast an envious eye on you?" any of those sufferings. Here observe how thus tempering his reprimand with somewhat of Paul, leaving all mention of heaven, earth, and praise. For it implies that their previous course sea, every where preaches the power of Christ, had excited jealousy, and that the present bearing about as he did, and holding up His occurrence arose from the malignity of a demon, cross: for this is the sum of the Divine love whose breath had blasted their prosperous toward us.

estate.

Ver 2. "This only would I learn from you, Received ye the Spirit by the works of the Law, or by the hearing of faith?"

And when you hear of jealousy in this place, and in the Gospel, of an evil eye, which means the same, you must not suppose that the glance As ye do not attend, says he, to long disof the eye has any natural power to injure those courses, nor are willing to contemplate the magwho look upon it. For the eye, that is, the nitude of this Economy, I am desirous, (seeing organ itself, cannot be evil; but Christ in that your extreme ignorance,) to convince you by place means jealousy by the term. To behold, concise arguments and a summary method of simply, is the function of the eye, but to behold proof. Before, he had convinced them by what in an evil manner belongs to a mind depraved he said to Peter; now, he encounters them within. As through this sense the knowledge entirely with arguments, drawn not from what of visible objects enters the soul, and as jeal- had occurred elsewhere, but from what had ousy is for the most part generated by wealth, happened among themselves." And his persuaand wealth and sovereignty and pomp are per-sives and proofs are adduced, not merely from ceived by the eye, therefore he calls the eye what was given them in common with others, evil; not as beholding merely, but as behold- but from what was especially conferred on theming enviously from some moral depravity. selves. Therefore he says, "This only would Therefore by the words, "Who hath looked I learn from you, Received ye the Spirit by the enviously on you," he implies that the persons works of the Law, or by the hearing of faith." in question acted, not from concern, not to sup- Ye have received, he says, the Holy Spirit, ye

1

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[The word eik, without a cause,' occurs in the textus receptus on inferior authority in connection with the words 'whosoever shall be angry with his brother' (without a cause), but no where with the words, 'whosoever shall say, Thou fool,' as Chrys. here connects them.-G. A.]

"["The word means to bewitch by words, to enchant,' and is not to be explained with Chrysostom, who has envied you?' that is, your previous happy condition?"-Meyer.-G. A.]

[Ev vuiv is spurious, being omitted by Aleph. A. B. C. versions, Fathers, and Rev. Ver, as well as by W. and H.-G._A.]

["This signifies the life-like pictorial vivacity and effectiveness of Paul's preaching of Christ and Him crucified. The Greek verb is used of placarding public notices and proclamations."-Schaff. G. A.]

["See how effectually he treats the topic from (their own) experience."-Luther, quoted by Meyer. G. A.]

have done many mighty works, ye have effected miracles in raising the dead, in cleansing lepers, in prophesying, in speaking with tongues, did the Law confer this great power upon you? was it not rather Faith, seeing that, before, ye could do no such things? Is it not then the height of madness for these who have received such benefits from Faith, to abandon it, and desert back to the Law which can offer you nothing of the same kind?

vain ;" if you have but a mind to shake off drowsiness and recover yourselves, he says, it is not in vain. Where then be those who would cut off repentances? Here were men who had received the Spirit, worked miracles, become confessors, encountered a thousand perils and persecutions for Christ's sake, and after so many achievements had fallen from grace; nevertheless he says, if ye have the purpose, ye may recover yourselves.

Ver. 5. "He therefore that supplieth to you the Spirit, and worketh miracles among you, doeth he it by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?""

Ver. 3. "Are ye so foolish? having begun in the Spirit, are ye now perfected in the flesh?" Here again he seasonably interposes a rebuke; time, he says, should have brought improvement; but, so far from advancing, ye have Have ye been vouchsafed, he says, so great a even retrograded. Those who start from small gift, and achieved such wonders, because ye beginnings make progress to higher things; ye, observed the Law, or because ye adhered to who began with the high, have relapsed to the Faith? plainly on account of Faith. Seeing low. Even had your outset been carnal, your that they played this argument to and fro, that advance should have been spiritual, but now, apart from the Law, Faith had no force, he after starting from things spiritual, ye have proves the contrary, viz., that if the Commandended your journey in that which is carnal; for ments be added, Faith no longer avails; for to work miracles is spiritual, but to be circum- Faith then has efficacy when things from the cised is carnal. And after miracles ye have Law are not added to it. "Ye who would be passed to circumcision, after having appre- justified by the Law, ye are fallen away from hended the truth ye have fallen back to types, grace: (Gal. v: 4.) This he says later, after gazing on the sun ye seek a candle, after when his language has grown bolder, employhaving strong meat ye run for milk. He says, ing the vantage-ground by that time gained; "made perfect," which means not "initiated" meanwhile while gaining it, he argues from merely, but "sacrificed," signifying that their their past experience. For it was when ye teachers took and slew them like animals, while obeyed Faith, he says, not the Law, that ye rethey resigned themselves to suffer what those ceived the Spirit and wrought miracles. teachers pleased. As if some captain, or distinguished man, after a thousand victories and trophies, were to subject himself to infamy as a deserter, and offer his body to be branded at the will of others.

Ver. 4. "Did ye suffer so many things in vain ?2 if it be indeed in vain.”

This remark is far more piercing than the former, for the remembrance of their miracles would not be so powerful as the exhibition of their contests and endurance of sufferings for Christ's sake. All that you have endured, says he, these men would strip you of, and would rob you of your crown. Then, lest he should dismay and unnerve, he proceeds not to a formal judgment, but subjoins, "if it be indeed in

[This distinction between Texéw and entrexéw was not in the mind of the Apostle. The contrast with evaptáuevo, having be; gun,' shows that in Teleiode simply means are ye made perfect,' "the compound involving the idea of bringing to a complete and perfect' end." (Ellicott.) There may be a slight tinge of irony in the compound word.-G. A.]

["As we know nothing of persecutions endured by Galatians, it seems preferable to take the word in a neutral sense embracing all spiritual experiences (blessings and benefits as well) of the Galatians. (Comp.v. 3 and 6.)"-Schaff. Lightfoot refers it to the persecutions endured by the Galatians from Jews citing Gal. v: 11; and says "the ye leaves a loophole for doubt which the Kai, following, widens." So Ellicott. Meyer says, "It refers to everything which the false apostles in their Judaistic zeal had troubled and burdened the Galatians with. The eix then means "and all to no profit, all in vain," if indeed it be only (kać) in vain and not to the positive risk of your Messianic salvation that ye have suffered."-G. A.]

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And here, as the Law was the subject of discussion, he moots another special point of controversy, and very opportunely and with much cogency introduces a notice of Abraham.

Ver. 6. "Even as Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned unto him for righteousness."

Even the miracles done by themselves, he says, declare the power of Faith, but I shall attempt if you will suffer me to draw my proofs from ancient narratives also. Then, as they made great account of the Patriarch, he brings his example forward, and shows that he too was justified by Faith. And if he who was before grace, was justified by Faith, although plentiful in works, much more we. For what loss was it to him, not being under the Law? None, for his faith sufficed unto righteousness. The Law did not then exist, he says, neither does it now exist, any more than then. In disproving the need of the Law, he introduces one who was justified before the Law, lest an objection should also be made to him; for as then it was

The Novatians, who said the revealed covenant of grace did not provide for the case of the lapsed.

is

"The answer, obvious of itself, to the preceding question, axons wiσrews, 'from the hearing of faith,' and to this Paul subjoins that great religious-historic argument for the righteousness of faith which is presented in the justification of the progenitor of the theocratic people."-Meyer.-G. A.]

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