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There have been received during the time intervening between the report of 1878 and the date of the 1880 meeting, the following:

Psyche-Organ of the Cambridge Entomological Club. Boston. Current numbers

to date.

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. New York. Current numbers to date.
Science Observer. Boston. Numbers to date.

Transactions of the St. Louis Academy of Science. Vol. 4, No. 1.

Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. Vol. 5, part 1. Proceedings of the Monthly Meetings of the Entomological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences. Philadelphia.

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences. Philadelphia. Vol.
Proceedings of the Boston Natural History Society.

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part 2.

Bulletin of the Essex Institute. Salem. Vol. 2, Nos. 10, 11, and 12. Bulletin de la Société d'Etudes Scientifiques, de Lyon. Vols. 1, 2, 3 and 4—1874-78. Bulletin de la Société des Science, Lettres et Arts, de Pau. Comptes Rendus, Société Entomologique, de Belgique. parts to date for 1880.

Vol. 8, series 2.

Series 2, Nos. 60 to 72, and

Jahresbericht der Naturforschers Vereins Wisconsin, für 1879-80.

And the following separate pamphlets and papers:

Die Ansiedlungen der Normanen in Island, Grönland, und Nord Amerika, im 9,- 10und 11-jahrhunderts. From the Natural History Society of Wisconsin.

The Heat of the Comstock Lode; and New Methods of Ore Concentration and Gold Amalgamation. By J. A. Church, E. M., Ph. D. From the author.




Prof. Benjamin Franklin Mudge was born at Orrinton, Maine, Aug. 11, 1817, and died at Manhattan, Kansas, Nov. 21, 1879, in the sixty-second year of his age. When two years old, his father's family moved to Lynn, Mass., which place numbered his ancestors among its first white settlers. His parents were eminent for their piety, charity and hospitality. They encouraged studious habits among their children, providing them with good reading, and stimulating them to literary attainments and knowledge.

Three of Prof. Mudge's older brothers entered the Methodist Episcopal Conference, the oldest of whom died early in his ministry. The second was distinguished as a linguist, particularly in the Greek and Hebrew languages, and the youngest, and only one now living, has an enviable reputation as an author of historical Sunday-school books.

Prof. Mudge graduated at Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, in 1840, from which institution he received his degree of Master of Arts several years later. During his vacations and at odd moments, he diligently pursued his studies in natural history; and although two years after he graduated he entered the legal profession, yet he never relaxed his interest in science, and for many years the Lynn Natural History rooms contained a large cabinet of his collecting, which was afterward removed to the Kansas Agricultural College, and became the nucleus of the Mudge cabinet.

In childhood he exhibited the same simplicity of life, unselfishness and genuine love of nature, which grew and strengthened with age. Some incidents of his boyhood are illustrative of growing traits of character. When twelve years of age, he was sent with his three older brothers to hoe in a very weedy corn-field. As usual, the outside row, which the plow had scarcely touched, was much the hardest. A momentary query arose among the brothers who should take this row, when Benjamin said, "I will take that." This was characteristic of his life. In after years he cheerfully remained at the parental home, discharging home duties, though it imposed upon him several years of service at the shoe business longer than his brothers had performed, in order that they might secure the advantages of the higher (7)

education, although his thirst for study was developed as early in life and. as intense as theirs.

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An inquisitive mind with regard to natural objects seems to have been born in him. The features of nature in and about Lynn, the home of his youth, are unusually fine and beautiful. The locality is rich in minerals, and the sea-shore is lined with pebbles, polished by the friction of the waves. These were the attractive toys of his childhood, and minerals, incrusted moss and sea-shells became the ornaments of the home of his youth. This collection grew by the accumulation of years into that noble cabinet at Manhattan a monument worthy of any geologist. To sit on some cliff, and watch a stormy sea as it lashed the rock-bound shore, was the joy of his boyhood recreations. Once, after a great tempest, he stood near the edge of a rocky elevation, below which the mighty waves broke, throwing their spray high in the air. He was so much absorbed in the wild scene that he did not ́observe the spray sometimes shot somewhat above the rock on which he stood. Suddenly, as if angry at his seeming indifference, the sea sent a column of water into the air far above him, which descending, drenched him and his brother from head to foot. Benjamin enjoyed the mishap very much, and spoke of the sea as a friend who could not do him any real harm.

After practicing law for sixteen years, during which he attained a wide reputation for uprightness and fair dealing, and was honored by the mayoralty of Lynn, closing during his administration many saloons, thus creating quite a reform in the liquor traffic, he removed to Cloverport, Kentucky, where he was connected with the Breckinridge Coal and Oil Company.

On the breaking-out of the Rebellion, he removed to Kansas, a State he had been greatly interested in from its beginnings. He located in Wyandotte county, and his natural love for geology soon becoming known, he frequently delivered lectures on his favorite study through the country. In 1864, although a comparative stranger in the State, through the influence of Hon. I. T. Goodnow, the Superintendent of Public Instruction, he was invited to deliver a course of lectures before the Legislature, whereupon that body conferred upon him the office of State Geologist, an honor entirely unsought, yet thoroughly enjoyed. While the State appropriation provided for the office but a short time, he was subsequently elected State Geologist under the State Board of Agriculture, which office he held during life. During all these years he was constantly receiving specimens from all parts of the State, and many a little fortune has been saved to its owner from hazardous ventures for coal, lead or precious metals, by the truthful and always kindly advice from one who knew well how to read "sermons in stones."

In 1865, he was elected to fill the chair of Natural Sciences in the Kansas Agricultural College, to which institution, with a royal munificence, he donated his entire cabinet. It was during one of his summer excursions that he discovered Ichthyorins dispar, a bird with bi-concave vertebræ and teeth -an anomaly to science. In severing his connection with the college, the

students were deeply grieved at his departure, and presented him with a valuable watch, which he always carried-an ever-loving reminder of the mutual affection between students and professor.

The last years of his life he spent chiefly in making collections for Prof. Marsh, of Yale College, and thus brought before the scientific world many new and rare discoveries in paleontology.

On Friday evening, Nov. 21, 1879, Prof. Mudge sat at home with his wife, reading the fifth act of Shakspeare's "King Lear"-the wail over the dead Cordelia when, feeling a pressure in his head, he stepped out of the door to walk in the cool air. A few moments afterward his wife heard a groan, and hastened to his side, but found him unconscious from a stroke of apoplexy. A physician was hastily summoned, but, by a painless transit, Professor Mudge almost immediately passed to his reward.

On Sunday, November 23d, all Manhattan came to look upon his loved form. Scientific friends from various portions of the State and Missouri came to pay warm tributes of praise to the deceased scientist. To his bearers were added four of his scientific friends, Professors Snow, Popenoe and Parker, and Mr. Joseph Savage, all of whom have been intimately associated with Prof. Mudge in his scientific pursuits. The day was beautiful, and the scene, as the immense procession wound its slow and sad way up Cemetery Hill, will not soon be forgotten. And, as the sprigs of evergreen were thrown lovingly into his open grave, we looked forward to the time when he will possess that blessed immortality of which this is a beautiful emblem.

In the summer vacation of 1867, the writer first became personally acquainted with Prof. Mudge. Called to Lincoln College in April of that year, the writer set himself at work to organize a State Scientific Association. For three months he tried to enlist the people of Topeka in such an organization, without the least success. He then wrote to Prof. Mudge, who thought the time had not yet come in the State for such an enterprise. During the summer vacation, the writer, by special invitation, spent three royal weeks with Prof. Mudge, at his home in Manhattan; and during this visit was matured the plan for organizing the Kansas Natural History Society, which afterward grew into the Kansas Academy of Science. Of this organization Prof. Mudge was elected the first President, and was again President at the time of his death. During these twelve years, he was unwearied in his labors, always cherishing plans for the development of the Academy, whose success formed one of the most joyous experiences of his life. His papers are the results of his own observations and experiments, and are real and substantial contributions to knowledge. While professor at the Kansas Agricultural College, he spent his summer vacations in making collections on the Plains, to enlarge his cabinet-the richest and best in the West; and he would often enrich the private collections of his scientific friends with boxes of specimens. By mutual agreement, Prof. Frank H. Snow, of the State University, and Prof. Mudge had divided scientific work between themselves,

in order to accomplish the largest possible results for the new State-the former giving most of his time to living forms, the latter to fossil forms. While at Topeka, at one time, the attention of Prof. Mudge was elicited by seeing impressions on the flagging stones of the sidewalks, and this led to the valuable discovery in science of the so-called bird tracks of the Osage valley. He did much original work in science, and several species which he discovered bear his name.

But Prof. Mudge did not confine his whole attention to scientific pursuits. He was a keen observer of events, and was essentially a man of the people. There was an earnestness and enthusiasm which glimmered in all he said, like sunshine on a beautiful day. All who knew him were charmed with the truthfulness and simplicity of manner which he possessed. He was the most companionable of men, and people everywhere were attracted to him. He was not afraid of the truth, no matter where it might lead him. No road was so rugged he would not follow it in the pursuit of truth. He would give up the most cherished opinions unhesitatingly, when newlydiscovered facts did not sustain them. Still, with all his enthusiasm, he was conservative and prudent, and seldom made mistakes. Those who were intimate with him during our civil war, remember how cheerfully he awaited unfolding events, with a supreme faith in the darkest hours that the right would be triumphant. With him there was no cloud that did not have a silver lining. He manifested the deepest interest in educational progress, and in the growth of the State institutions. He was the life of teachers' associations, and was a favorite lecturer at teachers' institutes. Prof. Mudge was an earnest temperance worker, and a permanent member of many temperance organizations, both in Massachusetts and Kansas. While living at Quindaro, during the war, one of the border towns of Kansas, there was great excitement on the slavery question. Some runaway slaves from Missouri came to Prof. Mudge for work and protection. Their masters offered a large reward for their recovery, and his home and life were threatened in a midnight attack. He would not yield to threats, however, but protected the refugees, and saved them from being dragged back into slavery.

Prof. Mudge possessed fortitude, or passive courage, which is characteristic of great minds. While living in the West, his sensitive nature suffered many things incident to a formative condition of affairs. But as a pioneer in laying the foundations of society, he moved calmly forward in the discharge of duty, regardless of personal consequences. He possessed great benevolence of being, and always took the most charitable view of human actions. He worked harmoniously with his associates, and as far as possible lived peaceably with all men.

As a teacher, Prof. Mudge was, loved and revered by all his pupils. His pleasant and genial manner encouraged the timid, his unfailing knowledge and warm memory served to quicken the ambitious, and his tact and practical insight into personal things developed many a dull scholar to a promi

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