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and lower relation, in reference to which the sentence is quoted, is only a partial, certainly a necessary, efflux, or a partial consequence, or a representation. Thus, after Christ's healing of the sick, Isaiah is quoted in Matt. viii. 17, although the passage from the fifty-third chapter of the prophet related to Christ's removal of sin, which was indeed typified by his cures, as St. Peter (1 Ep. ii. 24) rightly interpreted it. Of the same sort is the quotation in John xviii. 9.-5. In some few places they are used where only something similar is intended, such as in Matt. ii. 17; xiii. 35; and are often merely confirmatory, or, as the rabbinical
לקיים מה שנאמר,writers say
The utility of these critical observations is our apology for the length of the article; and the whole will be a fair specimen of Dr. Hengstenberg's work. The Scholia, although abounding in information, are necessarily unfitted for our purpose, beyond the general expression of an opinion; since the references in them are very frequently to German authors, whose books are unknown or scarcely known in England. On the Seventy Weeks of Daniel the Doctor is particularly luminous, and particularly long. We have, however, derived no inconsiderable pleasure from our task; not only because the perusal has enabled us to propose to our readers another theological writer deserving of a place intheir libraries, but to recommend one as valuable for his orthodoxy, as for the solid learning which he will communicate.
As to the Bishop of Peterborough, his well-deserved fame can receive no addition from us. Suffice it, that we account him the deepest and the most critical theologian of his age; of whom it may justly be said,
Quando ullum invenient parem!
ART. II.-Select Sermons of Bishop Taylor, &c. &c. &c. London. 1834.
THE history of secular eloquence is the history of the passions; the history of sacred eloquence is the history of their subjugation. To the former alone have the researches of biography, or the lights of criticism, been directed or applied. Cicero has delineated the complete orator, with inimitable grace and decision of outline, propriety of costume, and mellowness of colouring. Never has the MASTER delivered the laws of his art with a more solemn authority, or a more captivating elocution. The beauty of the illustrations, the melody of the style, and the lustre of the language, impart a deep and absorbing interest to his pages. Nor can we pass over unremembered the milder graces of Quintilian, a writer who has, indeed, declared his right of judgment by his power of performance, and in whom all the faculties of the
accomplished rhetorician are chastened and disposed by a presiding taste of the purest order. It is impossible to mention Cicero without recalling that mighty orator whom he delighted to reverence and to honour. Cicero sat at the feet of Demosthenes, yet never did a wider limit exist between two illustrious individuals, than between the authors of the Orations for MILO and the CROWN. In the Greek, it is not the orator whom we behold, but the man, the wrestler for freedom, the Athlete in the political arena, shining with all the muscular vigour of mature adolescence. He grapples, by turns, with his auditors, his judges, and his antagonists, and overthrows them all with facility.* In his invectives against Philip, he is at once a general, a king, a prophet, and the tutelar angel of his country. His marvellous simplicity deepens the impression of his earnestness. He uses language, said Fenelon, as a modest man uses a garment; to cover, not to adorn him. The fury, the impetuosity, the inflammation, of his indignation is never impeded for a moment by any attempt at brilliance of thought or expression. When Robert Hall was asked how the speaking of Fox affected him, he answered, as that of Demosthenes would; his words were like darts of fire. Longinus requires for the rapid operation of eloquence upon the feelings of the hearer, that the emotion of the orator should wear the appearance of unpremeditated nature. Αγει γὰρ τὰ παθητικὰ τότε μᾶλλον, ὅταν αὐτὰ φαινήται μὴ ἐπιτήδευειν αὐτὸς ὁ λέγων, ἀλλὰ γεννᾷν ὁ καιρός. (De Sub. cap. 18.) Such was that noble attestation by which the Athenian patriot summoned the heroes from their graves at Marathon and Platæa, to the presence of the awe-stricken multitudes of Athens; such the impetuous appeal of Cicero to Catiline in the Senate-house; such the prayer with which Chatham invoked the Genius of the Constitution; such the withering rebuke inflicted by Lyndhurst upon the Agitator of Ireland. The emotion of the orator arose out of the occasion, and the impulse with an electrical rapidity communicated itself to every spectator. Coleridge thought that a prose style consisted of words in their best places,-poetry of the best words in the best places; a puerile distinction without a difference. Addison supposed fine writing to be composed of sentiments which are natural, without being obvious; a definition than which, in the opinion of Hume, nothing can be more just or concise. Proper words in their proper places, was the more brief explanation of Swift, himself one of the purest writers in our language. It would be inexpedient, in this place, to construct any parallel between the two mighty orators, who, in the language of Milton, "fulmined" over Athens and Rome. The distinction between them, indeed, seems resolvable into this-that Demosthenes was the most effective popular speaker, as Cicero was
the most accomplished orator. The benches of the House of Commons were often crowded during an harangue of Fox; they were generally empty during the magnificent declamation of Burke. The illustrations of the Athenian were usually obvious and intelligible to the humblest capacity; the illustrations of the Roman were frequently drawn from the recondite stores of learning, or the poetic treasury of imagination. The Athenian citizen might throw down his handicraft work, and rush to listen to the first in perfect confidence of understanding him; it frequently demanded the reflective mind of the scholar to follow the involved argument, and the many-coloured images of the latter. We abstain from carrying out these principles of criticism, although we hope to make it appear that the eloquence of the Bema or the Forum is not entirely dissociated from the subject of our present inquiry. A disposition has long existed, and continues to exist, which desires to exclude the eloquence of the pulpit from the general circle of literature; to transfer, indeed, with a very slight alteration, Johnson's strictures upon sacred poetry, to sacred oratory. The simple enunciation of the awful truths and warnings of the Gospel has been considered amply sufficient to effect the purposes of the preacher. The example of our Saviour himself has been appealed to, to confirm and attest the assertion. What Paley has observed of our Lord's manner of teaching in general, may be quoted upon the subject. He produced himself, as he well remarks, a messenger from God. He put the truth of what he taught upon authority; but with the apostles the case was different. Although enlightened and inspired by the overshadowing PRESENCE of the SPIRIT and GRACE of GOD, with the voice of their LORD still sounding in their ears, and the Gospellight still reflected, as it were, from his countenance upon them, they, nevertheless, strove to be all things to all men, that they might win some. St. Paul is an impressive and conclusive example. That illustrious apostle fought the battles of the faith in the complete armour of intellectual power; and while wielding the mighty Sword of the Spirit, he did not hesitate to attack and overbear the antagonist by the weapons of human ingenuity. He did not even omit the comic poets of Athens, as we discover from the quotation of an iambic line, attributed to Menander, in the fifteenth chapter of the first epistle to the Corinthians :-M πλανᾶσθε· Φθείρουσιν ἤθη χρῆσθ ̓ ὁμιλίαι κακαί. Wheelwright, in the preface to his translation of Aristophanes, concludes from the remarkable use of the verb uvcíolai, which occurs eleven times in the surviving dramas of Aristophanes, that St. Paul was not unacquainted with his works, which were, indeed, known to Chrysostom, Clement of Alexandria, and Gregory of Nazianzum.
The great Fathers of the Church followed in the footsteps of the apostles;-the whole of the Fifth Book of St. Chrysostom's Treatise upon the Priesthood is devoted to the consideration of
the advantages to be derived by a minister from learning and power of utterance, manner, method, speech; nothing is passed over. He inculcates the necessity of these accomplishments in the Christian Pastor, not for the sake of acquiring popularity, but of arresting attention. "So compose your discourses," he says, "that they may please God, (for the rule and sole end of their composition should be this, not applause nor popularity;) if, however, you should be pleasing to men also, reject not their encomiums; but if your hearers do not bestow them, seek them not, nor grieve for their absence."
Upon the character and talents of Chrysostom we propose to speak more at large upon a future occasion. He adds another to the illustrious list of men whose genius was early developed. "Happy," was the exclamation of his tutor Libanius, while reading a composition in praise of the Emperor, "happy the panegyrists who have such emperors to praise; and happy the emperors who have found such a panegyrist to praise them."
In contemplating the youthful effusions of a Chrysostom, a Milton, a Tasso, or a Cowley, we are reminded of the elegant reflection of Cicero,-" Volo enim, se efferat in adolescente fœcunditas; nam facilius sicut in vitibus revocantur ea, quæ sese nimium profuderunt, quam si nihil valet materies, nova sarmenta cultura excitantur; ita volo esse in adolescente unde aliquid amputem. Non enim potest in eo esse succus diuturnus, quod nimis celeriter est maturitatem assecutum." This fertility of youth Chrysostom never lost;-the tree might have gained in strength by a vigorous lopping of the luxurious foliage. But no one can deny the brilliancy of his fancy, the liveliness of his imagery, or the general coherency of his argument. Take a single instance—ἵνα μὴ πλημμύρα τὸν ἐν ἡμῖν καταποντίσῃ λογισμὸν εἰς τὸν τῆς ἁμαρτίας βύθον—“ Lest the tumultuous crowd throw the reason within us over the bridge into the gulf of sin." "What a vivid idea!" exclaims Coleridge (although his translation is not entirely accurate), "it is enough to make any man set to work to read Chrysostom." But he did not escape altogether the errors of his age.
Speaking of the efficacy of prayer he indulges in a form of expression very open to censure. "The potency of prayer hath subdued the strength of fire; hath bridled the rage of lions; hushed anarchy to rest; extinguished wars; appeased the elements; expelled demons; burst the chains of death; expanded the gates of heaven; assuaged disease; repelled frauds; rescued cities from destruction; it hath stayed the sun in its course, and arrested the progress of the thunderbolt. In a word, it hath destroyed whatever is an enemy to man." Again, in the following very singular comparison-" Let us proceed to the service of the poor. This place may be called the Mount of Olives. The poor are olive trees planted in the house of the Lord, distilling that precious oil which feeds the lamp of our salvation;
that oil which the five virgins had." We have given a slight specimen of false taste in this eminent writer; we will now offer one of false imagination. He is alluding to the Holy Sacrament, and the consecration of the elements. "In that hour the angels surround the priest; each marshalled host attunes the note of gratulation; and all the sanctuary, and all the altar is thronged with heaven's radiant tenantry, in reverence of Him who lies there! This might easily have been accredited from the nature of the rites which are then performed. But I have heard a man relating that an aged person, an admirable saint, and one who was in the habit of beholding visions, informed him that he was once blessed with such a sight. He assured him, that when the sacrifice was offered, he beheld instantaneously a multitude of white robed angels encompassing the altar, and bowing down their heads, as soldiers do homage to their prince. And I, at least, believed it." Graver and more obvious instances of incorrect and extravagant metaphor might be produced from the writings of Chrysostom. Longinus has noticed the proneness of a great mind to fall into the most trifling inadvertencies; and he asserts, that the most daring efforts of sublimity are inconsistent with accuracy of imagination. Quintilian advances a similar opinion, and carries it to a greater extent,—" Nec invenisse quidem credo eum qui non judicavit." Cicero, not very differently, alludes to the quality which we call taste,—" Omnes, enim, tacito quodam sensu, sine ulla arte aut ratione quæ sint in artibus ac rationibus recta ac prava dijudicant.' It was the want of this Silent Sense which suffered Shakspeare, and the choir of Elizabethan poets, to rush into such violent exaggerations of sublimity and pathos; to substitute so often the grotesque postures, for the imposing attitudes, of mental grandeur; and to display, in the words of Parr, the contortions of the Sybil, without her inspiration. But it may be desirable, at the present moment, when a republication of the select works of the Fathers is in contemplation, to offer a succinct estimate of the character of one of the most eminent among them, drawn up, with considerable skill, by a writer whose prejudices were certainly not in favour of Chrysostom.
"There is no ecclesiastical writer from whom so much general information can be obtained as from Chrysostom: the manners and customs of the day are frequently introduced into his orations; the superstitions and elegant follies of the times are made subjects of his reprobation; he enters into domestic society, and shows us how it was formed and regulated; the sports of the low and the amusements of the high, are made fruitful themes for instruction; contemporaneous history frequently receives light, and there are few events of even a trifling nature from which he does not show instruction can be derived. His morality is not of that ascetic cast which rendered the manners rough and the religion revolting of too many of the holy men of