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ROGER ANDREWS, D. D., was Master of Jesus College, Cambridge. He too was a famous linguist in his time, like his brother Lancelot, the Bishop of Winchester, whose life we have largely sketched as president of the first company of the Translators.

THOMAS HARRISON was Vice-Master of Trinity College; "and further deponent saith not."

ROBERT SPALDING, D. D., was Fellow of St. John's College, and succeeded Edward Livelie, of whom we have spoken in this article, as Regius Professor of Hebrew.

ANDREW BING, D. D., was Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge. In course of time, he succeeded Dr. Spalding, in the Royal Professorship of Hebrew.

These brief notices, just sufficient to show that the individuals deserved their places among the Translators, must suffice. The quiet and uneventful life of these profound students and deep divines, leaves no strongly marked incidents on the historic page. But their influence still lives and operates in their immortal work; and their voices continue to swell that grave and solemn chorus which ever chants to us the holy Word of God " in our own tongue, wherein we were born."


THE question has been somewhat agitated within a few years past, Whether the agency of the Spirit in regeneration is mediate, or immediate? In other words, Whether the Holy Spirit renews the heart by a direct divine efficiency; or by simply presenting motives to the mind of the sinner, and thus inducing him to comply with the terms of the gospel? The former opinion has been maintained by most, if not all, of the standard orthodox writers of New England. The latter, however, has some advocates at the present day. They maintain, that the Holy Spirit never operates upon the mind of an adult person, who is capable of understanding the truth, except through the medium of truth or motives; and that the influence which he exerts in regeneration is like the influence which we exert over one another. He only presents motives to the mind.

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We here give a few extracts to show what was the opinion of the older New England divines. President Edwards says: "The question with some is, Whether the Spirit of God does anything at all in these days, since the Scriptures have been completed. With those that allow he does anything, the question cannot be whether his influence be immediate; for if he does anything at all, his influence must be immediate." Dr. Bellamy says: "In regener ation, there is a new, divine, and holy taste or relish begotten in the heart, by the immediate influence of the Spirit of God." Dr. Hopkins says: "The divine operation in regeneration, of which the new heart is the effect, is immediate, or it is not wrought by the energy of any means as the cause of it, but by the immediate power and energy of the Holy Spirit. It is called a creation, and the divine energy in it, is as much without any medium, as in creating something out of nothing." Dr. Smalley says: "Regeneration is such a spiritual change of nature, as supposes something created in a proper and strict sense."

Dr. Smalley, it is well understood, held what has been called "the taste scheme," and Dr. Hopkins "the exercise scheme." But both of them held, that, in regeneration, the new heart is the immediate effect of a divine operation, that it is properly called a creation, and is as much without any medium, as when something is created out of nothing. One supposed that the new heart consists in a holy taste or disposition, which is the foundation of right moral exercises. The other, that it consists in right moral exercises themselves. On this point, there has long been a difference of opinion among New England Calvinists. But in regard to the direct or immediate agency of the Spirit in regeneration, so far as we have known, they have been perfectly agreed.

Dr. Dwight says: "The soul of man was created with a relish for spiritual objects. The soul of every man who becomes a Christian, is renewed by the communication of the same relish." Dr. Dwight we understand to agree with Dr. Smalley. That he uses the word communication in the same sense in which Dr. Smalley uses the word creation, is evident from the whole tenor of his remarks on the subject.

We have intimated, that, more recently, an opposite view has been maintained. There are those who hold, that the heart is not renewed by a direct act of the Holy Spirit, but only through the presentation of truth or motives similar to the moral suasion which

one man may exert upon another. To this supposition there are serious objections.

In the first place, we are constrained to ask, What is meant by the Spirit's presenting motives to the mind? Is it meant that he communicates any new revelation? If so, then the Bible is not complete. But if any new truths are revealed, what are those truths? They must be known by those to whom they have been communicated. But no one is conscious of having received any such revelation. What then is the influence of the Spirit? If he does not operate directly on the heart, by preparing it to receive the truth, or to yield to the motives which truth presents, on what does he operate? Does he operate on the truth itself? What does he do to the truth? Does he produce any change therein? It cannot be; for the truth is perfect and immutable. No; it is the sinner's heart which needs to be changed, and there the change is wrought. The sinner is brought to love. what before he hated. This is the effect produced, and if this effect is not produced by the direct agency of the Holy Spirit, then what does the Holy Spirit effect in regeneration? It is said, he induces or persuades, the sinner. But how? Does he reason with him, as man reasons with his fellow? What arguments does he use? And how does he bring his arguments before the sinner's mind? How can the truth be brought before the mind of men, except it be done by immediate revelation, or through the medium of the senses? That the Holy Spirit communicates any new revelation to the sinner, will not be pretended. Nor will it be pretended, that he personally presents it to the mind. through the medium of the senses. He neither addresses it to the ear nor presents it to the eye, except as he first communicated it to the sacred penmen, and caused them to record it for the instruction of all coming generations. If, then, we deny the direct efficiency of the Holy Spirit in changing the heart, how is it possible to maintain that he exerts any special agency in the regeneration of the sinner? We frankly confess, that were we to adopt this hypothesis, we should feel compelled to deny all special divine agency in that work.

It is another objection to this theory, that the natural heart is opposed to the truth; and so far from yielding to its influence, invariably resists it. Motives have no influence over the mind, any farther than they fall in with the affections of the heart. The

presentation to the mind of a hated object, has no tendency to excite love to that object. On the contrary, it only awakens opposition.

If it should be said, that the Holy Spirit may give weight and power to motives, which, of themselves, they do not possess, we admit that he may do so by changing the disposition of the heart, and thus preparing it to yield to the truth. It will then operate with power, and exert a controlling influence over the mind. But as long as the heart resists the motives which the truth presents, so long they are powerless. No matter by whom they are presented, or with what clearness and force they are urged; just in proportion to their pressure, will be the resistance, so long as the heart remains the same. Now the heart of every unrenewed man is enmity against God, and resists every motive to holy obedience which can be presented. This resistance, therefore, must be taken away, before motives will exert their appropriate influence. And this is done not by the bare presentation of truth to the mind; but by a divine energy accompanying the truth, and operating directly on the heart, changing the affections, causing the mind to view the truth in a new light, and thus preparing it to yield to its influence. In this way the word of God is rendered. "quick and powerful." Then the gospel becomes "the power of God unto salvation." And thus believers are sanctified through the truth. This is brought to pass, not by barely presenting the truth to the mind, nor by communicating any new power to the truth itself; but by an omnipotent energy accompanying the truth, and operating directly on the heart.

But is there no tendency in truth to produce right affections of heart? This question may be answered by another. Is there no tendency in the heat of the sun to soften material substances? The proper answer is, that it depends on the nature of the substances. It has a tendency to soften wax; but it hardens clay. So the truth, presented to a holy heart, will call forth holy affections. Presented to an unholy heart, it will awaken opposition.

But it may be said, that, although a certain amount of motive presented to the mind of the sinner, will only awaken opposition, yet the Holy Spirit can pour such a blaze of light upon the sinner's mind as to overcome his opposition. But will an increase of light change the sinner's heart? Will the light of the last day convert the congregated throng of sinners before the judgment

seat? Will the light of eternity subdue the rebellion of the lost spirits in hell? And will any conceivable degree of light make the hated character of God appear lovely to a carnal mind? As well might we suppose that a furnace may be heated so hot as to freeze; or that cold may become so intense as to melt down the mountains of ice in the polar regions. Moral causes, as well as physical, produce none but their appropriate effects. By increas ing the power of the cause, we may increase the effect, but we cannot change the character of the effect. To suppose the same cause to produce directly opposite effects, is a manifest absurdity.

It may be asked, Of what use is the truth, according to the view which has now been taken? We reply, that it is of great use. It is in view of the objects which truth presents, that sinners are convinced of sin, and that all the affections of the renewed soul, are brought into action. There can be no holy affections without some object upon the mind towards which they are exercised. Consequently, in producing holy affections in the hearts of men, God makes use of truth. As it is written, "Of his own will begat he us with the word of truth." "Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God, which liveth and abideth forever." Other similar declarations are to be found in the Scriptures. But they do not prove that the sinner's heart is changed by the power of motives, any more than they prove that good seed sown on bad ground makes the ground good, and thus ensures a crop. It is true that good seed is necessary; but good seed must be sown on good ground, that it may spring up, and bear fruit. Who ever heard that a barren waste was fertilized, and made fruitful, by barely sowing it with good seed? Take another illustration. God cannot cause a blind man to see without light. Consequently, in restoring sight to the blind, he makes use of light. And it may be as truly said, that it is with the light he causes the blind to see, as it is said, that of his own will begat he us with the word of truth. But it is not the light which opens blind eyes. Pour light forever upon the eyes of a blind man, and it will not remove his blindness. And pour the light of truth forever upon the mind of the sinner, and it will not take away the heart of stone and give the heart of flesh. This must be effected by the omnipotent energy of the Holy Spirit.

In what special manner the Spirit operates in regeneration, we do not pretend to explain. But that the operation must be on 16*


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