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spirit in Anglicanism and, without intending it, so wonderfully aided the Catholic revival in England. Bishop Wordsworth's theme is the reform of the Church and he wisely goes to the root-the reform of the clergy. He urges the necessity for "times of retreat, of loneliness, of detachment" for those engaged in the ministry, he pleads for a strict spiritual training of ecclesiastical candidates in the seminaries, "quiet homes of spiritual life" where "they for a time may be alone with God, like Moses on Sinai " and learn to become "regular and obedient, self-denying and happy in their ministry," so as not to be "worn out or crushed by premature practicality." The seminaries in England which have moulded themselves on this Catholic ideal have produced, he declares, the men who are the strength of the Anglican Church. We cannot but rejoice at their success, for two reasons; first, because the men trained in them spread a deeper and truer doctrine in the Church of England; and, secondly, because so many of them and of the people whom they instruct leave the Established Church for their true home, like-if such a light fancy be pardonableducklings who forsake the hen that mothered them, and in spite of maternal warnings and predictions of inevitable disaster betake themselves to the kindly bosom of the water.

Perhaps this English bishop had reason to believe that the Episcopalian seminaries of this country, despite their excellent points, do not in general promote such a life of discipline, self-denial, meditation and prayer as he finds, for example, at Cuddeston, near Oxford. This would be an opinion in no way discordant with the echoes that we hear now and then, which bear witness to ideals somewhat different from our own; and such a judgment, we infer, is very clearly implied in the beautiful and faithful description of Catholic seminary life recently given us by Father McGarvey, who knows both types well through personal experience. However this may be, it is precisely in regard to the recruiting of the clergy that the prospect of the Episcopal Church is least bright. "Candidates for Holy Orders," we learn from a report submitted to the convention, "have declined steadily from 510 in 1904, to 469 in 1907 and now to 431. It is evident that the ministry is not attracting its due proportion of young and able men." The blame is ascribed chiefly to the worldliness that has come with

* Ecclesiastical Review, November, 1910.

increased prosperity, a cause which will touch all churches. During this period, however, our own seminaries have seen a remarkable increase and two of them have a larger enrollment than the twenty theological seminaries of the Episcopal Church. It is noteworthy that the Episcopal Church, which is everywhere the church of the wealthy and well-to-do, at present recruits its ecclesiastical candidates largely if not chiefly from among the poor. At least we draw this inference from the statement that ninety per cent of the students at the General Theological Seminary earn part of their expenses by work in missions, etc. If the straightened circumstances of the students will teach the ministers of the future sympathy with the poorer classes, and insight into their needs, the Episcopal Church may be redeemed from one of its greatest reproaches -that while it has succeeded among the wealthy, it has signally failed, nearly always and everywhere, among the poor and middle classes. There is one mark of the true Church, at least concerning which it maintains a fit and modest silence"the poor have the Gospel preached to them."

If the "Report of the Committee on the State of the Church" is not very encouraging in regard to the ministry, it indicates progress in most other respects. In six years "communicants" or members have increased more than 130,000; at present the number given is 937,861, while in the committee's estimate, "there are at least one million persons in this land entitled to communicate in our churches; and twice as many may fairly be claimed as 'adherents' more or less adhesive." If only the High Church party could succeed in instilling its principles into a large proportion of this mass the outlook would certainly be brighter in this country for the growth of a deeper and firmer Christian spirit.

One hopeful feature of the report is the increased number of pupils under the care of the Church. In 1907, there were 14,000 pupils in the parish schools of the Episcopal Church and 9,000 in their Industrial Schools; in 1910 they numbered respectively 29,000 and 19,000, doubling their enrollment in each case. The percentage, however, is still low, as these schools total only 58,000 while the Sunday Schools have 457,000. This indicates, at least, a growing recognition of the necessity of a religious education. Some day the Protestant Churches in this country will awake to the realization that

they have been their own greatest enemies; as the people drift further and further away from them, the folly will be apparent of expecting those uninstructed in the principles and spirit of a Church to remain its loyal members. The most earnest and discerning Protestant leaders of many denominations already perceive that the neglect of religious instruction in the daily education of our American children means inevitably the unchurching of the masses in our country; it has, indeed, to a great extent, already brought it about. Religion ought to be the element in which children live, move and have their being; but religion as American Protestant children are made to feel it is like a cold douche once a week. If religious life is feeble in their homes-as it so frequently is-and absent from school, we may safely infer, even without the blessed light of modern pedagogy, that their religious education is bound to be deficient and ineffective. The Sunday School is a very inadequate substitute; and poor makeshift as it must necessarily be, it is often robbed of the value it has by inability to distinguish religious truth from questions of geography, history, criticism and archeology, more or less connected with the Bible and more or less useful.

We know indeed where the difficulty lies. Protestantism no longer has the courage to teach. She (if we may personify the Church of a thousand sects) has become the Doctor dubitantium, leaving her children to choose their own opinions. She feels that the divine commission "Teach all nations" is no longer for her; or, as one cynically put it, she is ready to accept it in the form of the typographical error, "Teach all notions." Certain it is, unless Protestantism can find a way to give more definite religious instruction and more of it, she will lose much of her power as a religion and take more and more the form of a social and charitable organization.

III.

We have tarried too long at the door of the Convention; now to its proceedings. They are of interest to us, not so much for the legislation enacted as for the indications of the theological temper and tendencies of its members. Disregarding then some acts important to Episcopalians, let us note a few signs of the times.

The most important utterance at the Convention, if we judge by the size of the newspaper type announcing

were

it to the public, was the denial that the Bible is the word of God. This was made, or at least seemed to be made, in the course of a three-minute speech-compressed unwisdom-by a minister from Oregon. No one replied to him; possibly because they knew the man. But a newspaper sensation resulted; and the Episcopal Church was put in a very bad light, until the offending minister, in a carefully written statement, explained he had been misunderstood, and declared his belief in the Bible as the word of God. The incident is noteworthy as showing that, despite the inroads of rationalism in the Episcopal Church as well as elsewhere, the denial of the inspiration of Scripture is still a scandal. It is worth remarking, too, that a conference representing all varieties of opinion in the Church, adopted a resolution which incidentally described the Holy Scripture "as containing all things necessary to salvation and as being the rule and ultimate standard of faith." The bruised reed is not broken. Belief in the inspiration of Scripture is still essential and, we trust, still vigorous among Episcopalians, though most likely we should find their ideas of inspiration unsatisfactory.

The old tenacious clinging to the King James version as the only Bible authorized for public use has, after many years of opposition, given way; the Convention while retaining the old version as the standard, permits the reading of the lessons in the Revised Versions, English and American. This is a step which brings the Protestant Bible a little nearer to the Catholic, since the Revised Version, at least in the New Testament, is much closer to our own than the King James text. With a very few exceptions, the differences in meaning in the New Testament are quite unimportant, though the verbal differences remain numerous. The one great difference between the Catholic and Protestant Bibles concerns the deutero-canonical portions of the Old Testament, which Protestants reject; but here again, as regards the Canon, they have in recent years drawn nearer to the Catholic position-partly, we admit, though not entirely, owing to a less strict view of inspiration -and have shown a much higher appreciation of these portions of Holy Writ.

The Catholic position forbidding the remarriage of any divorced person was adopted by the House of Bishops, but through lay influence in the House of Deputies, action was postponed till the next general Convention; when, it appears, it

has a good chance of becoming the law of the Church. It is gratifying to note that a very large and increasing number of Protestant scholars, not only among Episcopalians, interpret our Lord's words concerning divorce in the Catholic senseabsolute prohibition of remarriage. If the Episcopal Church, in its coming conferences with other Protestant bodies, can induce them or help them to take a higher and firmer stand against divorce, it will be rendering a great service to Christian civilization. We are not sanguine that the various Protestant Churches will accept, in its entirety as the Episcopal Church most likely will, the Catholic position on divorce; most of them will probably continue to permit the remarriage of the innocent party who has been freed on the ground of the other's infidelity. We do expect, however, and have a right to expect, that they will not continue to disobey the plain command of Christ, which no ingenious interpretation can obscure, and will cease to condone and encourage one of the greatest evils of society. We do expect their ministry-our good opinion prompts us to expect it-to purge itself of the deepest stain upon its Christian name.

The preceding Convention, by the adoption of the famous amendment to Canon 19, was widely supposed to have committed the Episcopal Church to the policy of the "Open Pulpit," by which others than Episcopalian ministers might be allowed to preach in their churches. This amendment caused consternation among the Catholic-minded element in the Church for it led, or might easily lead, to the view that Episcopal ordination was unnecessary and conferred nothing essentially different from the ordination of any Protestant Church. Thus would the Anglican claim to apostolic orders be wounded to death in the house of its friends, and the blow would be more effective and more cruel than the Papal denial. The immediate effect of the "Open Pulpit," if permission were freely granted to non-Episcopal ministers, would be a lowering of the Church's doctrinal tone. The measure, so interpreted, could only mean to them the decatholicization of the Episcopal Church and the merging of it in the mass of Protestant sects. A memorial, therefore, signed by over eleven hundred clergymen, in protest against such an interpretation of the Canon, was presented to the House of Bishops. The reply of the Bishops deni that the amendment modified, in the least degree, "the

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