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France.

Recent Events.

The rulers of France have been engaged in the somewhat commonplace occupation of protecting the savings of the people from undue risk, and of securing orders from the Turks for articles of French manufacture. They have been more successful in their efforts in the former case than in the latter. Hungary tried to negotiate a loan for about a hundred million of dollars; but the patriotic feelings of the French refused to allow their money to go towards the expense of finding arms which it was probable would be used against themselves. The Turks have been making repeated efforts to supply themselves with funds from the same source, but both the insufficiency of the security and the probability which has recently arisen, that the money would be used to strengthen the Triple Alliance, have made the government hesitate before giving the necessary approval to the project. The fact that it was not unlikely that the money ob. tained from France would be spent in Germany made the French still more unwilling to accede to the wishes of the Turks. France wanted Turkish custom, but Germany had outbid her. It is a humiliating spectacle to see Christian nations competing for the favors of the Turk, who is proving himself almost as intolerable under the new as he was under the old régime.

The willingness of the government to undertake what would be looked upon elsewhere as purely a business matter is shown by the opening of a new department of the Ministry of Public Works, to be known as the "National Touring Bureau." The object is to centralize all information which may interest travelers in France and to increase the facilities for travel in the country. The establishment of this Bureau under the auspices of the government is an indication of the extent of the increasing dependence of the Old World upon the New.

Savoy has been celebrating the Jubilee of its annexation to France. The President took part in the festivities and was welcomed by the people with every mark of enthusiasm. The fact that there was no reference to Napoleon III. in the speeches that were made excited the ire of M. Ollivier, who was the Prime Minister of France when the war was declared

in 1870. The France of to-day, he says, "shows cowardice on every hand; cowardice above and cowardice below; cowardice in deed and word and thought; and, above all, cowardice in history, falsification of facts, and the abolition of national traditions." Which of the two is the worse, cowardice or foolhardiness, it is hard to say, but even if it were true that France has been careful not to provoke war, and has done too much for the sake of avoiding it, M. Ollivier is the last person in the world to call attention to such an error.

Repeated accidents upon a railway which is under the management of the State have raised the question whether the State is well fitted for the carrying on of this branch of business. The fact, however, that the railway in question has only recently passed under State control, and that its defects were largely due to the former owners, make it impossible to give a decisive answer.

The strike of railway men which has recently taken place has been expected for a long time. There is in France an organization, called the Confederation of Labor, which has for its object the destruction of the existing order, both political and economical, by what it calls direct action. It is animated with the most bitter hatred towards capitalists, and has no scruples about taking any means, lawful or unlawful, for effecting its purpose. A General Strike is what it most desires, but so far it has not been able to bring this about. It has made several attempts and has failed. The strike which has just taken place is but the last of a series, and it has met with the same fate as those that went before. The credit of the victory is attributed to M. Briand who has been both energetic and conciliatory. The railway men had to choose between their duty to the country as soldiers in the reserve, and the pecuniary advantages offered by the promoters of the strike. When M. Briand declared it to be an insurrection, patriotism in the majority of cases prevailed over self-interest and the Confederation's call was not obeyed. Immense damage, however, was done and many trades and industries disorganized, even though the strike failed to reach the dimensions which its promoters had planned.

The French Church has been celebrating the thousandth year of the foundation of the Benedictine monastery of Cluny, an event which took place on the 11th of September, 910. European scholars and representatives of French learned Societies have taken

part in the celebration, Representatives of the French Academy, of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres, of the Academy of Moral and Political Science, of the Academy of Fine Arts, as well as representatives of the government, joined with bishops, priests, and monks in praising the work of an establishment which all agreed in recognizing as having occupied for centuries a unique place in the history of Christianity and civilization. The writer of one of the papers developed the idea that the Benedictine Order of Cluny was an essentially French institution. "While Catholicism," he said, "was the least national of religions, beneath the unity of its organization and the universality of its doctrine, the Church has not effaced the special hereditary characteristics of the peoples of which it is composed. The Divine Sower may have scattered the same seed on the fields of humanity. The diversity of the soil and of the air gives a different tinge to the crops that are produced. There is a French Catholicism-that of St. Bernard, of Gerson, of Vincent de Paul, of Bossuet, of Lacordaire-a happy alliance of idealism and good sense, of sentiment and reason, a common need of discipline and liberty, the same aversion from the individualism which isolates human beings and from autocracy which absorbs them, a love of clearness in beliefs as well as in duties."

Germany.

In common with France, Spain, Austria, and England, Germany has been disturbed by labor disputes. It would seem that the workingmen are trying to prove that they can act as unreasonably, or at least can make themselves as disagreeable to the rest of the community, when they have the power, as in former times other classes have been in the habit of doing. A shipping dispute has been going on in Germany for a long time involving large numbers of men belonging to the shipbuilding and allied trades. In this case the employers were the active aggressors, having locked out the men. The end has not yet come. An insignificant dispute in Berlin involved one of the districts of that city in serious turmoil. Conflicts between the people and the police took place for four or five successive days and nights. There were indications that the populace had been regularly organized, and the Social Democrats were accused of being the organizers. This, however, they disclaim. Four British and American journal

ists, who ventured upon the scene of operations, were attacked wantonly, it is said, by the police. The President of the Police praised the journalists for their courage, but refused all redress.

The Social Democrats have been holding their annual congress at Magdeburg, and as they have this year a membership of 720,038 compared with one of 633,309 last year and of 384,327 in 1906, each of whom is a voter for the Reichstag, such an assembly cannot be neglected. It has no less than 76 daily newspapers, one of which has a circulation of 139,000. The Party has its own divisions and sub-divisions. The main line of cleavage is between those who are willing to obtain by parliamentary action, and by co-operation with other parties, such ameliorations of the lot of the workingman as opportunity affords, and those who will accept all or nothing. The Socialist members of the Baden Diet had voted for the Budget, and thereby had compromised the purity of Socialist principles. The consideration of their case took up much of the time of the Congress, and the debate ended in a vote of censure being passed upon those who should depart from the pure principles of non-co-operation. A resolution was passed which declared that any member who in future should vote for the estimates should ipso facto be excluded from the party. The offending members withdrew from the meeting at which this resolution was passed; but there is good reason to expect that no permanent division will take place and that the party will present a united front to all opponents at the approaching General Election next spring.

The Pan-German League has also been holding its annual meeting, but for some reason or other little public attention has been given to its proceedings. Entire disapproval of the proceedings of Baron von Schoen, until recently Foreign Secretary, was expressed, and the English proposals for a limitation of armaments were characterized as attempts to meddle in the affairs of a foreign power. England ought to realize that she was making herself ridiculous. In addition to these, and similar exchanges of incivilities, each of the two countries is striving to learn the strength one of the other. A German lieutenant has been arrested in England, and two Englishmen have been arrested in Germany for a too close inspection of their respective fortifications.

Austria-Hungary.

The visit paid by the German Emperor to the Emperor of Austria, in order to offer his personal Jubilee congratulations, brought out very clearly the closeness of the relations between the two Empires, and the fact that the alliance is not merely between the governments and sovereigns, but that the hearts of the peoples-so far as they are German-are in full sympathy with the alliance. Domestic intimacy is the expression used to characterize the relations at present existing. This is largely due to the support which was so unhesitatingly given by the Kaiser to Austria-Hungary in the annexation crisis. The two countries are now looked upon as belonging one to the other. When the German Emperor comes to Vienna he comes as a friend so close that no special emphasis need be laid on his presence. A visit paid to the Rathhaus, or City Hall, of Vienna, in order to receive an address of the citizens, was an innovation, for Imperial visits have hitherto been confined to higher circles. He was received by these citizens with enthusiastic applause repeated over and over again. In the speech which he made, his Imperial Majesty recognized that this reception was a token of the inmost sympathy existing between the people of Vienna and himself, and that it was chiefly due to his action in "taking his stand in shining armor at a grave moment by the side of your most gracious Sovereign." This declaration confirms the fact, so often and so long denied, that Russia was threatened by Germany with armed intervention, in the event of an attack upon Austria in the recent annexation crisis. It throws a light, too, upon the existing relations between Russia and the other two Empires, especially as the speech was made on the eve of the rapprochement of Turkey to the Triple Alliance.

Ever since this same annexation-crisis the relations between the Dual Monarchy and Great Britain have been, if not cool, certainly not very warm. The fact, however, that the new King of England sent, to announce his accession, a special and exclusive representative, and one so distinguished as the Earl of Rosebery, was taken as a great compliment, as in fact it was meant to be. It was looked upon as an expression of the desire to change the attitude of Great Britain towards Austria, and even by some it was said to be an expression of regret that such an attitude had ever been taken. That the relations between the two Powers have again become hearty and friendly,

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