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profoundest instinct in humanity to which the Socialist appeals. The secret of all human progress lies in the fact that men are forever striving to eliminate suffering and want. Goaded by a desire to obtain more of good in return for less labor and pain and sacrifice, mankind has progressed thus far. It is to that desire in the vast majority that Socialism makes its appeal. So far from admitting that Socialism depends upon change in human nature, the Socialist contends that Socialism must come unless the fundamental human instincts and passions which we call human nature are changed.

SUMMARY

1. Private business is honeycombed with graft, and the principal sources of graft in public business come from its relations with private business. Socialists contend that public ownership would remove the chief source of graft.

2. Socialism and anarchism are fundamentally opposed to each other in both theory and tactics.

3. Socialists do not wish a huge bureaucracy. On the contrary, they wish to abolish the bureaucracy of capitalist society.

4. Socialism is not incompatible with religion and does not concern itself in any way with religious belief.

5. Socialism would not do away with any socially desirable incentive, but it would add to the strength of the highest incentives which inspire mankind.

6. Socialism appeals to the most fundamental instincts of human nature, and Socialists contend that Socialism must win unless human nature is changed.

QUESTIONS

1. Give the Socialist answers to objections 1-15 inclusive by reference to the preceding chapters.

2. In what forms does graft exist in private business?

3. Upon what grounds do Socialists base their belief that Socialism will be relatively free from graft?

4. Contrast the principles of Anarchism with those of Socialism.

5. What is the attitude of Socialists towards bureaucracy?

6. What is the source of the idea that religion and Socialism are antagonistic?

7. What are the chief incentives to human activity?

8. What is the effect of commercialism upon art?

LITERATURE

Kelly, E., Twentieth Century Socialism, Book I, Chap. III.

Spargo, J., The Socialists, Who They Are and What They Stand For, Chap. XVI.

Vail, C. H., Principles of Scientific Socialism, Chap. XIII.
Vandervelde, E., Collectivism, Chap. VI.

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Agricultural Stage, 92.

Agriculture, Concentration in, 11,
27, 162, 163; Department of, 365;
Labor in, 343; under Socialism,
238.

Alcoholism, 345–347.

Alexander II of Russia, 303.
Alexander VI, Pope, 244.
Alsace-Lorraine, 203.

AMERICA: class distinction in, 101;
industrial concentration in, 159-
160. See also UNITED STATES.
American Federation of Labor, 295–
296, 299-300, 329.

American Steel and Wire Company,
169, 170.

American Tobacco Company, 175,
178.

American Underwriter, The, 32.
Amsterdam, International Congress
at, 8, 263, 278.
Anabaptists, 241.

ANARCHISM: and coercion, 218; and

Socialism, 358-359; and the fam-
ily, 243; in America, 295; in Hol-
land, 308; in France, 275; in
Spain, 310.

Ancient Society (Morgan), 71 n.
Animal Society, 66.
Anseele, Eduard, 282.
Arbitration, International, 352.
Argentina, 312.

Aristotle, 210.

Arkwright, Richard, 94.

Armenia, 312.

Art, 219, 366–367.
Athens, 187, 210, 367.
Australia, 96, 182, 261, 312.

AUSTRIA: and Poland, 310-311;
Socialism in, 264, 279-281; Social-
ist policies in, 344, 346.

Aveling, Edward, 286.

Aveling, Eleanor Marx, 286.

B

Babeuf, François-Noel, 191, 275.
Babylonia, 73, 93.

Bachelors' Companies, 94.

Bachofen, 249.

Bacon, Francis, 190.
Baden, 271.

Bakunin, Michael, 257, 262, 283,
302.

Ballot, The, 190, 339.
Banking, 22.
Barbarism, 71.
Barcelona, 310.
Barnave, 191.

Basiliade, The, 191.

Bax, E. Belfort, 243, 286, 287, 337.
Bazard, Armand, 256.
BEBEL, AUGUST: and Bismarck,
322; Biographical, 273; and Ei-
senach Party, 267; on Monar-
chy, 8; and parliamentary tactics,
319-320; on the State, 213; on
the family, 243; quoted, 213.
Beesby, E. S., 286.

Belgian Labor Party, History, 281;
on abolition of the Senate, 340;
on agricultural labor, 343; on
public health, 345; on alcoholism,
346; on taxation, 347, 348.

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Canals, 215, 216, 237.
Capital, nature of, 145.

Capital (Marx), 162 n.; writing of,
258; quoted, 7, 118, 128, 144 n.,
153, 157.

Capitalism, gains under, 13; stages
of, 157.

Capitalist class, 8, 104, 107-108,
111-113.

Carey, Henry C., 124 n.
Carpenter, Edward, 286.
Cartwright, Edmund, 94, 195.
Celibacy, 241–242.

Charles I. of England, 190.
Charles II. of England, 191.
Charities and the Commons, 41 n.,
42 n.

Charity, 41, 216.

Chartism, 255, 285.

Chernyschefsky, Nicholas, 301, 302.
Child labor, in England, 95, 236;
poverty and, 37; prevention of,
39, 216; Socialist parties on, 342;
and vice, 247.

Chili, 312.
China, 312.

Christianity, 188, 202, 241-242, 243,
244.

Christian Socialist Party, 280.
Cicero, 205.

City of the Sun, The, 190.
Civilization, 72–74.

Civil War, American, 87, 97.
Clan, The, 69-70.

Clark, C. C., quoted, 170.
Class, Definition of, 102.
CLASS DIVISIONS: Antiquity of,
103; character of, 8-10, 104; econ-
omists on, 105; St. Simon on,
191; Socialist ideal and, 205, 207;
and reform program, 323.

Class Struggle theory, The, 100 et
seq.

Class consciousness, 110.

Classes and Masses (Mallock), 102.
Clemenceau, Georges, 279.
Coats, J. & P., Company, 174.
Code de la Nature (Morelly), 191.
Coercion, 217-218.

Colchester, 181.

Collective ownership, 348, 352.

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