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said her mother; and the little one looked up at her hat and down at her frock, and said, with a bright smile, 'Mother, what will the little dogs think when they see me in all these beautiful new things?""

ANDERSEN, What the Moon Saw.

7. Iphigenia. "I will tell them what hath been written in the tablet; and if it perish, thou shalt tell them again; but if not, then thou shalt give it as I bid thee.

Pylades. And to whom shall I give it?

Iphigenia. Thou shalt give it to Orestes, son of Agamemnon." Iphigenia among the Taurians.

8. "I was the first to call thee 'father,' and the first to whom thou didst say 'my child.' And thou wouldst say to me, 'Some day, my child, I shall see thee a happy wife in the home of a rich husband.' And I would answer, 'And I will receive thee with all love when thou art old, and pay thee back for all the benefits thou hast done unto me.'" Iphigenia in Aulis.

9. "Ceres answered that Hecate was welcome to go back thither herself, but that, for her part, she would wander about the earth in quest of the entrance to King Pluto's dominions." Tanglewood Tales, The Pomegranate Seeds.

LESSON XXII.

SHALL AND WILL (Continued).

EXERCISE.

I. Write the following passages (Lesson XX. 1, 2, 7, 8, 11; Lesson XXI. 1, 2, 3, 7, 8) in the form of indirect discourse (a) after a verb in the present and (b) after

a verb in the past tense; for example, introduce 1 as follows:

:

(a) He says that he will not stop to ask whether this mode of addressing him be, etc.

(b) He said that he would not stop to ask whether this mode of addressing him were, etc.

In writing the quotations in the indirect form after a verb in the past tense keep in mind that the tense of a dependent verb is always determined with relation to the main verb; notice then whether the action expressed by the dependent verb is (a) contemporaneous with that expressed by the principal verb, (b) subsequent to it, (c) previous to it; e.g.

a. Contemporaneous.

He says that he hears it, or is hearing it.

He will say that he hears it, or is hearing it.
He said that he heard it, or was hearing it.
He has said that he heard it, or was hearing it.
He had said that he heard it, or was hearing it.

b. Subsequent.

He

says that he shall hear it.

He will say that he shall hear it.

He said that he should hear it.

He has said that he shall hear it.

He had said that he should hear it.

1 Keep in mind, however, that when the present tense is used to state a general truth or an unalterable fact, it is not changed even after a verb in the past tense; e.g.

"Blessed be the memory of the writer who helped to teach us that we have a country, and showed us that we were to have a literature of our own."

OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES, Irving's Powers of Idealization.

c. Previous.

He says that he has heard it already.

He says that he had heard it before that time.
He will say that he has heard it already.

He said that he had heard it already.

He has said that he had heard it before that time.

He had said that he had heard it before that time.

II. Write the following passages (Lesson XX. 5; Lesson XXI. 5, 9) in the form of direct discourse.

LESSON XXIII.

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

The subjunctive mood is used in expressions of (a) uncertainty, and (b) unreality (that which is not yet realised). It is used then (c) in expressions of what is contrary to fact; and also in expressions (d) of purpose, and (e) of desire, because these in themselves imply unreality, that is, the wish is implied or expressed that some condition should exist which does not exist, or that something should be other than it is.

Learn the forms of the verb "to be" in the subjunctive mood.

PRESENT TENSE.

If, though, lest, etc., I be.
If, though, lest, etc., thou be.
If, though, lest, etc., he be.
If, though, lest, etc., we be.
If, though, lest, etc., you be.
If, though, lest, etc., they be.

PAST TENSE.

If, though, lest, etc., I were.

If, though, lest, etc., thou wert.
If, though, lest, etc., he were.
If, though, lest, etc., we were.
If, though, lest, etc., you were.

If, though, lest, etc., they were.

In other verbs there is no change of form in this mood, except in the second and third persons singular, where the form is the same as in the first person.

The subjunctive mood is formed also by the use of the auxiliaries "may" ("might"), "should," and "would.”1

EXAMPLES.

a. Expressions of uncertainty.

1.

"Then to the well-trod stage anon,

If Jonson's learned sock be on,

Or sweetest Shakespeare, Fancy's child,

Warble his native wood-notes wild."

MILTON, L'Allegro.

2. "Cæsar had his Brutus, Charles I. his Cromwell, and George III.— may profit by their example. If this be treason, make the most of it."

PATRICK HENRY.

3. "Fair youth, you are too bold; but I can help you, weak as I am. I will give you a sword, and with that, perhaps, you may slay the beast; and a clue of thread, and by that, perhaps, you may find your way out again.” The Greek Heroes, Theseus.

4. King Henry. "But if it be a sin to covet honour, I am the most offending soul alive." King Henry V., iv. 3. 1 Compare Lessons XXV. and XXVI.

b. Expressions of unreality.

1. "Then said Achilles, 'Lady, I should count myself most happy if the gods would grant thee to be my wife.'' Iphigenia in Aulis.

In this conditional sentence the conclusion, "I should count myself most happy," is expressed in terms of unreality, because the happiness is as yet only an idea, to be realised "if the gods would grant," etc.; the condition denotes the uncertainty of the speaker as to the gods' granting his wish.

2. "Brown is the more reckless of the two, I should say; East wouldn't get into so many scrapes without him." THOMAS HUGHES, Tom Brown at Rugby.

Here one condition is understood; i.e. "I should say [if I were asked to give my opinion]," and another is implied in "without him"; i.e. "East wouldn't get into so many scrapes [if he were here without Brown].”

3. "Teach me half the gladness

That thy brain must know,

Such harmonious madness from my lips would flow, The world would listen then, as I am listening PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY, To a Skylark. Here a condition is implied; i.e. "[If you would] teach me."

now."

c. Expressions of what is contrary to fact.

Notice that the conclusion to a condition contrary to fact is necessarily an expression of unreality, because the thought expressed in it is not realised.

1. "Believe me, if I were really aware of any secret, you should learn it before we part. But I have no such knowledge." The House of the Seven Gables.

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