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("would") in the first person, "shall” (“should”) in the second and third, to express an idea of determination, promise, command,1 or foretelling (prophecy2).

a. Simple Futurity.


1. “And first Orpheus spoke and warned them, 'We shall come now to the wandering blue rocks; my mother warned me of them,- Calliope, the immortal muse." " The Greek Heroes, The Argonauts.

2. You will, perhaps, have patience to hear two instances of the personal agency of Athena as the air." RUSKIN, Queen of the Air, Sect. 36.

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3. "Then Ganelon bade the king good-bye, and went on his way. But he said to himself, 'This is Roland's doings, and I shall hate him all my life long; neither shall I love Oliver, his brother, nor any other of the twelve peers.'" The Story of Roland.

b. Determination.

1. "If I'm a beggar born,' she said,
'I will speak out, for I dare not lie." "

Lady Clare.

2. Cæsar. "You are come in very happy time
To bear my greeting to the senators
And tell them that I will not come to-day;
Can not is false, and that I dare not, falser;
I will not come to-day; tell them so, Decius."

Julius Cæsar, II. 2.

1 In expressions of command only the second and third persons are used.

2 The first person in prophecy is used only in the Bible.

8 Notice that the terms of simple futurity are used with expressions of feeling or emotion. Write," I shall be glad," "I should be sorry," etc.

3. Orlando. "O Rosalind, these trees shall be my books,

And in their barks my thoughts I'll character."

c. Promise.




As You Like It, III. 2.

"And by my word, the bonny bird

In danger shall not tarry."

THOMAS CAMPBELL, Lord Ullin's Daughter.

"Come live with me and be my love,
And we will all the pleasures prove
That hills and valleys, dale and field,
And all the craggy mountains yield.

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The shepherd swains shall dance and sing

For thy delight each May morning."

CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love.

"We two will wed to-morrow morn,

And you shall still be Lady Clare."

Lady Clare.

d. Command.

1. Cæsar.

"Mark Antony shall say I am not well Here's Decius Brutus, he shall tell them so."

Julius Cæsar, II. 2.

2. Bassanio. "You shall not seal to such a bond

for me,

I'll rather dwell in my necessity."

e. Foretelling (prophecy).

The Merchant of Venice, I. 3.

1. "For in this same day I will bring forth your army

out of the land of Egypt."

Exodus xii. 17.

2. "The land that was desolate and impassable shall be glad, and the wilderness shall rejoice, and shall flourish like the lily." Isaiah xxxv. 1.

3. Bishop of Carlisle. "And if you crown him, let me prophesy :

Peace shall go sleep with Turks and infidels,
And in this seat of peace tumultuous wars

Shall kin with kin and kind with kind confound."

King Richard II., iv. 1.

4. "The stars of midnight shall be dear

To her; and she shall bend her ear

In many a secret place

Where rivulets dance their wayward round,

And beauty born of murmuring sound

Shall pass into her face."

WORDSWORTH, Three Years She Grew.


SHALL AND WILL, auxiliary verbs (Continued).

I. In a question use the form of the auxiliary expected in the answer. Notice then whether the answer is expected in the terms of simple futurity, determination, promise, command, or foretelling.

Use "shall" ("should") always with the first person in a question, whatever be the terms in which the answer is implied.

1. Promise.


Celia. 66 Will you, Orlando, have to wife this Rosalind? Orlando. I will."

As You Like It, IV. 1.

2. Simple Futurity.

"But will Ingé never come up here again?' asked the little girl. And the reply was, 'She will never come up again." ANDERSEN, The Girl Who Trod on a Loaf.

3. Command.

Decius. "Shall no man else be touched but only


Julius Cæsar, II. 1.

Answer implied in terms of command, "No other man shall be touched."

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The Merchant of Venice, IV. 1.

5. Shylock. "I stand for judgment. Answer, shall I

have it?"

Answer implied in terms of promise, "You shall," or "You shall not."


"Shall I, wasting in despair,

Die because a woman's fair?"

GEORGE WITHER, The Author's Resolution in a Sonnet. Answer implied in terms of determination, "I will not die."

II. In all dependent clauses except those of indirect. discourse, (a) use "shall" ("should") in all three persons to express the idea of simple futurity; (b) use "will" ("would") throughout to emphasise the idea of determination.


a. Simple futurity.

1. Decius. "If you shall send them word you will not


Their minds may change."

Julius Cæsar, II. 2.

2. Decius. "Break up the Senate till another time, When Cæsar's wife shall meet with better dreams." Ibid. 3. "The Prince was to declare the victor in the first day's tourney, who should receive as prize a war-horse of exquisite beauty and matchless strength."


4. Antonio. "These griefs and losses have so baited


That I shall hardly spare a pound of flesh

To-morrow, to my bloody creditor."

b. Determination.

The Merchant of Venice, III. 3.

1. Rosalind. "If you will be married to-morrow, you


And to Rosalind if you will."

As You Like It, V. 2.

2. King Henry. "If they will fight us, let them come down." King Henry V., iv. 7.

3. "I am now teaching him the Master Words of the Jungle that shall protect him with the Birds and the Snake People, and all that hunt on four feet, except his own pack. He can now claim protection, if he will only remember the words, from all in the Jungle."

KIPLING, The Jungle Book, Kaa's Hunting. III. In indirect discourse, use the form originally used by the speaker or writer. Notice that a change of person does not change the auxiliary.

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