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be put in place of a letter that is omitted from a word. In "tower'd" (Ex. 3) the apostrophe replaces the "e" omitted.

A word in apposition, with its modifiers, should in general be set off from the rest of the sentence by commas; for instance, see above, "uncle of the three kings," "the doughtiest warrior in all Rhineland" (Ex. 5). See Rules for Punctuation, IV. 8, Lesson XLIII.

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Flying between the cold moon and the earth,
Cupid all arm'd.”

SHAKESPEARE, A Midsummer-Night's Dream.

2. "But a churl, armed with a bow, and arrows of steel, was hidden among the trees.”

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1 Made up of tales selected from old French poems and legends, from romances of King Arthur, legends of Charlemagne, and from the Gesta Romanorum.

4. "And the sound of his voice arose among the cliffs, and resounded among the rocks, and was echoed from valley to valley, and reëchoed from peaks and crags, and carried over the mountain-tops, even to the blue sky above." The Story of Roland.

5. "High were the hills, deep and narrow were the gorges, narrow were the ways among the mountains. Yet the sound of that horn was heard for thirty leagues. Charlemagne and Duke Namon heard it while yet they were between the gates."

Ibid.1

6. "I was this morning walking in the gallery, when Sir Roger entered at the end opposite to me, and advancing towards me said he was glad to meet me among his relations, the De Coverleys, and hoped I liked the conversation of so much good company, who were as silent as myself."

JOSEPH ADDISON, The Sir Roger de Coverley Papers
in The Spectator.

PUNCTUATION.

When two words or phrases in the same construction occur in a series, they should be separated by a comma, unless connected by a conjunction (Ex. 1). Even when two such words or phrases are so connected, if it is necessary to restrict a modifying word or phrase to one alone, they should be separated by a comma (Ex. 2).

When more than two such words or phrases occur, they should be separated by commas, whether connected by conjunctions or not (Ex. 3); unless the connection is

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1 Ibid. is an abbreviation of the Latin word ibidem, meaning in the same place, and is used here to mean the same reference as before;" that is, The Story of Roland. A period should always follow an abbreviation.

so close that the comma seems unnecessary. See Rules for Punctuation, IV. 6, Lesson XLI.

Here it should be noted that punctuation is a matter of feeling, not of rule alone. The closeness of connection in thought between various parts of a sentence must in general govern the punctuation, and pupils should be trained early to perceive and judge of this connection.

When two or more clauses of like construction, whether dependent or independent, occur in a series, they should be separated by commas if the pause between them is sufficient to demand some punctuation (Ex. 4, Ex. 5).

In general all dependent may be separated from independent clauses by commas, but a close connection renders the comma unnecessary (Ex. 5, Ex. 6). For instance, in Example 5, the clauses in the last sentence are not separated from each other, because the second clause defines the distance at which Charlemagne heard the horn; in Example 6, the first two clauses are separated, because the second does not define the time of the first. For further examples of these rules, see Rules for Punctuation, IV. 7, Lesson XLII.

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1. These men stood forward now as mediators

the Roman gods and the Roman people.

2. The sun shone

the delicate leaves; every

thing breathed in the sweet fragrance.

3. Before him figures had been put in rows, one above

another, with little thought of connection

Giotto placed them in groups.

them.

4. His voice, which once floated over a little provincial seaport, is now reverberated brick edifices, and

strikes the ear amid the buzz and tumult of a city.

5. But I wandered north and south, upon the treacherous warm gulf-stream, till I met with the old icebergs afloat in the mid-ocean. So I got tangled the ice

bergs, and chilled with their frozen breath.

6. And when it was day he called the men of Barca to his parley; and they gladly hearkening to him, a covenant was made

them.

7. Upon this they went all trooping away, with every man a gun, a pistol, and a sword, and muttered some insolent things

themselves.

8. The commonalty, clad in homely garb, gave precedence to their betters at the doors of the meeting-house, as if admitting there were distinctions

9. Then they swore a great oath

them.

them, and after

ward both went in, and lay down to sleep.

10. And in a pine wood at last he met him, where the Isthmus was narrowest, and the road ran

high rocks.

LESSON III.

BESIDE AND BESIDES.

"Beside" is to be used only as a preposition with the meaning (a) by the side of, (b) aside from, (c) out of.1 "Be

1 "Beside" is not now used as an adverb, although it was formerly so used, as in the following stanza:

"The moving moon went up the sky,

And nowhere did abide;

Softly she was going up,

And a star or two beside."

SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE, The Ancient Mariner.

sides" may be used (a) as a preposition, with the meaning in addition to, and (b) as an adverb, in the sense of more

over.

EXAMPLES.

I. (a) "Beside " meaning by the side of.

1.

"I wander'd lonely as a cloud

That floats on high o'er vales and hills,

When all at once I saw a crowd,

A host of golden daffodils,

Beside the lake, beneath the trees,

Fluttering and dancing in the breeze."

WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, The Daffodils.

2. "And the old man spake piteously unto him, stretching forth his hands: 'Hector, beloved son, I pray thee await not this man alone, with none beside thee, lest thou quickly meet thy doom!"" HOMER, Iliad.1

(b) "Beside" meaning aside from.

1. "That they may know who are from the rising of the sun, and they who are from the west, that there is none beside me."

(c) "Beside" meaning out of.

Isaiah xlv. 6.

1. Brutus. "Only be patient till we have appeased the multitude, beside themselves with fear."

SHAKESPEARE, Julius Cæsar. II. (a) "Besides " as a preposition, meaning in addi

tion to.

1. "Newcastle had not his brother's capacity for busi

1 The quotations from the Iliad used as examples in this book are taken from the prose translation made by Lang, Leaf, and Myers.

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