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as, than, 40 f., after but, 123 f.; | Conjunctions (121-148), as connec-

of relative pronoun, 54 ff. See
Nominative; Possessive; Objec-
tive; Vocative.
CAXTON, WILLIAM, 249.
CHAUCER, GEOFFREY, 41, 70.
CHURCH, ALFRED J., 40, 57, 67,
72, 79, 81, 83, 84, 88, 95, 96, 98,
100, 101, 102, 103, 139, 144, 145.
Clauses, punctuation of, in series,
6, 167, with like dependence,
23, 182 f., dependent and inde-
pendent, 6, 168, restrictive and
coördinative, 52 f., 168, subdi-
vided by commas or with marked
pause between, 18 f., 180, denot-
ing contrast, explanation, 19,
consequence, 23, 181 f.; as con-
nectives, 144, 222; relation and
placing of, 217 ff., as aid to sus-
pense, 244 f.; parallel structure
of, 226 ff., 246 f.; main and sub-
ordinate, caution regarding, 234
ff. See also Relative Clauses.
Clearness, defined, 197; value of,
in sentence, 197, 247; repetition
of words for sake of, 197 ff.
See also Relation of Words;
Parallel Structure; Unity.
COLERIDGE, SAMUEL TAYLOR, 7,
47, 101, 205.

Collective noun, singular or plural,

agreement with, 19 ff.

Colon, 9, 15, 23. Rules for, 188 ff.
Comma, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 14, 15, 18, 23,
27, 52, 53. Rules for, 157 ff.
Common, distinguished from mu-
tual, 34.

Comparative degree, or superla-
tive, 112 f.; comparative as con-
nective, 143.

Comparison, of adjectives, 112 f.;
of substantives (use of other),
113 ff.; like nature in objects
compared, 119 f.; by means of
as . . . as and comparative with
than, caution regarding, 131.
Compound nouns and expressions,
possessive form of, 59.

tives, force of, 136 ff.; repetition
of, 199 f.; adverbial (coördina-
tive and restrictive), 53 f.; punc-
tuation before, 53; coördinative,
with personal or demonstrative
pronoun equivalent to relative,
46, footnote 237; parallel struc-
ture of clauses connected by,
226 f.; error in too frequent use
of, 248 f.
Connectives, conjunctions, force
of, 136 ff.; adjectives and ad-
verbs, 142 f.; adjective and ad-
verbial phrases and clauses, 144,
222; demonstrative pronouns,
142 f.; comparative, 143.
Construction. See Parallel Struc-
ture; Periodic Construction;
Balanced Construction.
COOPER, JAMES FENIMORE, 140,
145, 201.
Coördinative words, relative pro-
nouns, 46 ff.; equivalent to co-
ördinative conjunction and per-
sonal or demonstrative pronoun,
46, footnote 237; punctuation
before, 52 f.; whose, 53 f.; punc-
tuation before, 53; adverbial con-
junctions, 53 f.; punctuation
before, 53; coördinative con-
junctions, parallel structure of

clauses connected by, 226 f.
Correlatives, defined, 126; use of,
126 f., 130 ff.; placing of, 127 ff.
COWPER, WILLIAM, 90.

Dash, use of, 18, footnote 172,
footnote 182.

Dates, punctuation of, 23, 158.
DEFOE, DANIEL, 12, 24, 25, 95, 114.
Degree, comparative or superla-

tive, 112 f.; comparative as con-
nective, 143.
Dependence, clauses with like,
punctuation of, 23, 182 f., struc-
ture of, 227 ff.

DE QUINCEY, THOMAS, 25, 256, 267,
268; style of, footnote 256, 269.

Desire, subjunctive mood to ex-

press, 86, 89 f.
DICKENS, CHARLES, 50, 55, 60, 61,
106, 110, 145, 212.
Do, use of, 69.

DOBSON, AUSTIN, 281.

Dotted lines, use of, 3, footnote 151.
DOWDEN, EDWARD, 138.
DRAYTON, MICHAEL, 109.
DYER, SIR EDWARD, 110.

Each (pronoun), use of, 23 ff.;
(adjective), 25 f.; agreement
with, compounded with one, 36
ff.; replaced by either, footnote
26; all for, 27; both for, 27 f.
Each other, or one another, 34.
E.g., use of, 12; punctuation after,
12, 149, before, 18, 183 f.

Either (pronoun), use of, 23 ff.;
(adjective), 25 f.; for each, 26;
agreement with, 36 ff.; (con-
junction), correlated with or, use
of, 126 f., placing of, 127 ff.,
singular verb after, footnote

126.

ELIOT, GEORGE (MARY ANN
EVANS CROSs), 48, 246.
Else, compounded with anybody,
any one, etc., possessive form
of, 59.
EMERSON, RALPH WALDO, 25, 26,
68, 206.

tence, 253; in Balanced Sentence,
257.

Equally, superfluous in equally as,
132.

Every, use of, 25 f.; agreement
with, compounded with one and
body, 36 ff.

Except, use of, 12 f.
Exclamation point, 10, 15, 172.
Rules for, 178 f.
EXODUS, 75.

Fact, indicative to express, 90 f.;
subjunctive to express what is
contrary to, 86, 88 f.
Farther, or further, footnote 135.
Firm, name of, in possessive, 60.
FISKE, JOHN, 115.

For, as connective, force of, 138 f.
Force, defined, 197; value of, in
sentence, 197, 247; how gained,
see Emphasis.
GARRICK, DAVID, 136.
GASKELL, MRS., 106.
Genitive (Possessive), Double, 60 f.
GILCHRIST, ANNE, 60.
GOLDSMITH, OLIVER, 147.
GRAHAME, KENNETH, 94, 95,

114.

GREEN, JOHN RICHARD, 37.
GUERBER, H. A., 83.
GUÉRIN, MAURICE DE, 54.

Emphasis, by means of correla-
tives, 126 ff.; in placing of noun
and pronoun, 205 ff., of adverb,
211 f., of adjective, 215 f., of
phrases and clauses, substan-
tive, 217 f., modifying, 218 ff.,
220, 221, 244 f.; by position at
beginning of sentence, 220, 222,
244 f., at the end, 242 ff.; to
mark connection, 222; principle
of, defined, 242; illustrated in
suspended or periodic construc-
tion, 243 ff., in summary, 245 f.,
in balanced construction, 246 f.;
in Loose Sentence, caution re-
garding, 250; in Periodic Sen- HOMER, 8, 121, 145.

Had better, had rather, or would
better, would rather, 70 f.
HAWTHORNE, NATHANIEL, 2, 9,
16, 17, 20, 21, 24, 28, 34, 45, 49,
60, 66, 70, 71, 80, 82, 83, 84, 88,
89, 97, 100, 101, 102, 103, 105, 110,
119, 120, 123, 138, 140, 141, 147,
148, 198, 199, 200, 213, 222, 227,
228, 243, 246.
HENRY, PATRICK, 87.
HERBERT, GEORGE, 134.
HERRICK, ROBERT, 47, 67, 281.
HOFFMAN, CHARLES FENNO, 47.
HOLMES, OLIVER WENDell, 85,
99, 132.

How, or that, to introduce depend-

ent clause, 141 f.

115, 120, 146, 200, 212, 216, 226,
235, 236.

HUGHES, THOMAS, 88, 99, 104, 140. KIPLING, RUDYARD, 16, 44, 50, 78,
97, 100, 101, 102, 126, 155, 214.

Ibid., use of, punctuation after, 5.
I.e., use of, 18; punctuation after,
149, before, 18, 183 f.

LAMB, CHARLES, 95, 106, 198, 199,
231, 250, 261, 266; style of, 269.

If, indicative mood after, 90 f.; as LAMB, CHARLES AND MARY, 51, 52.
connective, force of, 139 f.

In, or into, 14.

Indicative mood, after if, though,
etc., 90 f.; now replacing sub-
junctive, footnote 90.
Indirect discourse, can and may
in, 67; shall and will in, 78 ff.;
after verbs of believing, feeling,
thinking, etc., 80; form of future
tense after verb in past, footnote
80; sequence of tenses, 85 f.
Infinitive, sign of, replaced by and,
103; error in omission of, 103 f.;
with cannot but, 104; tense of,
104 f.; sign of, repeated, 199; po-
sition of, as subject, 206; "split
infinitive," 212.

Interjections, punctuation of, 15,
26, 178, 179.

LANDOR, WALTER SAVAGE, 26, 67.
Lay, or lie, 67 ff.
Like, or as, 134 ff.
LITCHFIELD, MARY E., 120.
LONGFELLOW, HENRY
WORTH, 14, 106, 131.

WADS-

Look, followed by adjective, not
adverb, 110 f.

Loose Sentence, defined, 247 ff.;
value of, 252.

LOVELACE, RICHARD, 95, 133.
LOWELL, JAMES RUSSELL, 55.
LÜDERS, C. H., 291.
LUKE, 139.

MCCARTHY, JUSTIN, 9.
MACAULAY, THOMAS BABINGTON,
26, 27, 47, 94, 98, 122, 127, 227,
244, 254.

Interrogation point, 10. Rules for, Main thought in sentence, caution

178.

IRVING, WASHINGTON, 20, 44, 48,
73, 82, 102, 112, 143, 148, 214, 217,
220, 226, 263.
ISAIAH, 8, 76.

It, preparatory, footnote 205, 206,
217.

Italics, to replace quotation marks
with titles, footnote 3, 153.

JEFFERIES, RICHARD, 113.

regarding, 231 f., 232 ff., 234 ff.
MARCUS AURELIUS, 13, 51, 221.
MARLOWE, CHRISTOPHER, 75.
MATTHEW, 139.

May (might), notional verb, or
can, 62 f.; in indicative and sub-
junctive, 95 ff.; auxiliary, use
of, in forming subjunctive mood,
87, 96 ff.

MILTON, JOHN, 56, 87, 209.
MITFORD, MARY RUSSELL, 135.

JOHNSON, SAMUEL, 38, 53, 114, 246, Mood. See Indicative mood; In-

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Kind, or sort, 16 f.; with singular Neither (pronoun), use of, 23 ff.;

adjective, 17 f.

KINGSLEY, CHARLES, 13, 37, 45, 50,
74, 82, 87, 98, 101, 106, 111, 112,

agreement with, 36 ff.; (adjec-
tive), 25 f.; agreement with, 36 ff.;
(conjunction), correlated with

nor, use of, 126 f., placing of,
127 ff., singular verb after, foot-
note 126, with negative verb,
caution against, footnote 127.
Nominative case, after as, than,
40 f.; after but, 123 f.

No one, none, not one, use of, 32 f.
Nor, correlated with neither, see
Neither; correlated with not,
see Not; as connective, force of,
136 f.

Not, not only . . . but also, not
but, not ... nor, use of,
126 f.; placing of, 127 ff.
Nouns (16-61), repetition of, to
avoid ambiguity, 199; placing
of, 205 f.; clause used as noun,
placing of, 217 f., 244 f.; in ap-
position, see Appositive; collec-
tive noun, number of, agreement
with, 19 ff.; compound, posses-
sive form of, 59; nouns connected
by a conjunction, possessive form
of, 59 f.; verbal noun, possessive
case before, 61.

O, punctuation after, 26, 179.
Object, placing of, 205 f., footnote

206, for sake of suspense, 245;
clause used as, placing of, 217 f.
Objective case, after as, than, 40 f.;
after but, 123 f.

Oh, punctuation after, 179.

One, impersonal use of, 32, pos-
sessive form in, 32; with an-
other, the other, 33 f.
One another, or each other, 34.
Only (adverb), placing of, 209;
(adjective), placing of, 215; not
only... but also, see Not.
Or, correlated with either, see
Either; as connective, force of,
136 f.

Other, in comparison, 113 ff.; the
other, or another, 33 f.
Paralleling, exercises in, 275 ff.
Parallel structure, of clauses, 226
ff.; as means of emphasis in bal-
anced construction, 246 f.; source

of clearness and force in Bal-
anced Sentence, 257.
Parentheses, use of, footnote 155.
Parenthetical expressions, punctu-
ation of, 14, 18, 171 f.; confusion
caused by, 54 f.

Participle, present, used as noun
(verbal noun), 61, with cannot
help, 104; past, error in omission
of, 103 f.; "misrelated parti-
ciple," 213 ff.; as means of sub-
ordinating ideas, 236 f.
PERCY, BISHOP, 63.

Period, 1, 3, 5, 10. Rules for, 149.
Periodic (suspended) construction,

defined, 243; management of
suspense, 244 ff.; Periodic Sen-
tence, 253 ff.
Phrases, punctuation of, in series,
5, 163, with like dependence, 23,
182, exclamatory, 10, 178; con-
fusion caused by intervention of,
107; as connectives, 144 f., 222;
relation and placing of, 218 ff.,
as aid to suspense, 244 f.
Placing, of words, correlatives,
127 ff., noun, pronoun, 205 ff.,
infinitive as subject, 206 f., verb,
207, adverb, 211 f., adjective,
215 f., only, 209, 215; of subject,
predicate, object, supplement, in
suspended construction, 245; of
substantive clauses, 217 f.; of
modifying phrases and clauses,
218 ff., as aid to suspense, 244 f.
See also Emphasis.
Possessive case, formation of, 3, 10,
149 f.; special forms, 59 ff.;
double possessive (double geni-
tive), 60 f.; in apposition, 61;
before verbal noun, 61.
Predicate, agreement of subject
and, 107; modifier between sub-
ject and, footnote 207; placing
of, 207, in periodic (suspended)
construction, 244 f.
Prepositions (1-15), repetition of,
197 ff., 200 f.

Present tense. See Tense.

Pronouns (16-61), agreement with
antecedent, 36 ff.; antecedent of,
clearly indicated, 204 f.; special
possessive forms, 59; placing of,
205 f.; indefinite, 23 ff.; per-
sonal, 40 f.; case of, after as,
than, 40 f.; case of, before verbal
noun, 61; reflexive, 43 ff.; rela-
tive (coördinative and restric-
tive), 46 ff.; equivalent to con-
junction and personal or demon-
strative pronoun, 46, footnote
237; punctuation before, 52 f.;
confusion in case of, 54 ff.;
error in antecedent of, 107; but
equivalent to, footnote 124; de-
monstrative, as connectives, 142 f.
PSALMS, 34.

Punctuation, footnote 1, 3 f., 5 f.,
9 f., 14 f., 18 f., 23, 26 f., 52 f.
Rules for, 149-196.
Purpose, subjunctive mood to ex-
press, 86, 89; incorrectly intro-
duced by so as, 132.

Quite, meaning of, footnote 134.
Quotation, punctuation of, 3, 9, 15,
153, 173 f., 190 ff.

Quotation marks, 3, 9 f. Rules for,
153 ff.

Rather. See Would rather.
References, form of, punctuation
of, 3, 18, footnote 155, 157 f.;
158; to Scripture, 9 f., 158.
Relation, of words, pronoun and
antecedent, 204 f., adverb, 207
ff., adjective, participle, 213 ff.;
of modifying phrases and
clauses, 218 ff.
Relative clauses, relation and plac-
ing of, 219 ff.; punctuation be-
fore, 52; after coördinative con-
junction, caution regarding, 226
ff.; to replace clause of explana-
tion or clause introduced by coör-
dinative conjunction, footnote
237; as means of subordinating
ideas, 237; as aid to suspense,

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Rules for,

SCRIPTURE. See BIBLE.
Seems, followed by adjective, not
adverb, 110 f.
Semicolon, 18 f., 23.
180 ff.
Sentence, necessary qualities of,
197, see also Clearness; Force;
Unity; Emphasis; Loose, 247
ff.; Periodic, 253 ff.; Balanced,
257 ff.; value of different kinds
of, 252, 256 f., 260 f.
Sequence of tenses. See Tense.
SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM, 1, 4, 8,
16, 17, 19, 22, 33, 44, 47, 50, 51,
55, 56, 59, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 69, 70,
71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79,
87, 89, 90, 94, 96, 98, 100, 101, 102,
109, 122, 124, 125, 126, 127, 132,
134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140,
142, 145, 206, 218.

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