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ADJECTIVES.

LESSON XXIX.

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For indefinite adjectives, see Lesson VII. For "farther," (adjectives), see Lesson XXXIV. (footnote, p. 135). For "like" (adjective), see Lesson XXXIV.

I. Such.1

Use "such" alone (a) to mean of this kind, or (b) to express wonder or admiration.

be limited by a "that" clause.2

(a)

EXAMPLES.

(c) Otherwise it should

"Such" used alone to mean of this kind. 1. Miranda.

"There's nothing ill can dwell in such a

2.

temple."

SHAKESPEARE, The Tempest, I. 2.

"Upon Saint Crispin's Day

Fought was this noble fray,

Which fame did not delay

To England to carry ;
O, when shall Englishmen
With such acts fill a pen,

Or England breed again

Such a King Harry?"

MICHAEL DRAYTON, The Ballad of Agincourt.

(b) "Such" used alone to express admiration.

1. "It was either Pegasus, or a large, white bird, a very great way up in the air. And one other time, as I

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SO

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2 Compare footnote to Lesson XXXIV. on correct use of “ "such." Do not let the adjective "such" replace the adverb "so" before another adjective; for instance, never write," he was such a great man," without defining how great.

was coming to the fountain with my pitcher, I heard a neigh. Oh, such a brisk and melodious neigh as that was! My very heart leaped with delight at the sound." A Wonder-Book, The Chimæra.

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Such present joys therein I find."

SIR EDWARD DYER, My Mind to Me a Kingdom Is.

4. "The first time I heard its cheerful little note, John, was that night when you brought me home. Its chirp was such a welcome to me."

DICKENS, The Cricket on the Hearth.

(c) "Such" limited by a "that" clause.
1. "For she looked with such a look,
And she spoke with such a tone

That I almost received her heart into my own."
WORDSWORTH, The Pet Lamb.

II. Use of adjectives after "looks," "seems," and other neuter verbs.

Be careful to use the adjective, not the adverb, after the verbs "looks," "seems," etc., when the modifying word expresses a quality of the subject, not of the verb. In the examples that follow notice the difference in the meaning of such verbs when used with the adjective or with the adverb.

1. "The other day I was coming through . . . the road, carrying a big bunch of flowers, and met two dirty, ragged girls, who looked eagerly at my flowers.

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Then one of them said, 'Give me a flower!' I hesitated, for she looked and spoke rudely; but when she ran after me I stopped and pulled out a large rose, and asked the other girl which she should like. A red one, the same as hers,' she answered. They actually did not know its name. Poor girls they promised to take care of them, and went away looking rather softened and pleased, I thought; but perhaps they would pull them to pieces, and laugh at the success of their boldness. At all events, they made me very sad and thoughtful for the rest of my walk."

From a letter quoted in Fors Clavigera, Letter XLVI.

2. "I wonder if I've been changed in the night. Let me think. Was I the same when I got up this morning? I almost think I can remember feeling a little different."

Alice in Wonderland.

3. "Such a fish! . . . with a grand hooked nose and grand curling lip, and a grand bright eye, looking round him as proudly as a king, and surveying the water right and left as if all belonged to him. . . . And in a few minutes came another, and then four or five, and so on. ... And at last one came up bigger than all the rest; but he came slowly and stopped, and looked back, and seemed very anxious and busy. And Tom saw that he was helping another salmon. 'My dear,' said the great fish to his companion, 'you really look dreadfully tired.' Then he saw Tom and looked at him very fiercely."

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The Water-Babies.

Notice

III. Do not confuse adjectives with nouns. that in the incorrect forms of the sentences that follow, adjectives are referred to as if they were nouns :

Incorrect Form.

We see him wise, just, self-governed, tender, thankful, blameless, yet with all these qualities, agitated, stretching out his arms for something beyond.

Those who were not handsome were at least happy; and this feeling is a rare improver of your hardfavored visage.

But then he conceives him to be courageous, imperturbably cool, and inviolably faithful,-qualities most requisite for a conspirator.

Correct Form.

"We see him wise, just, self-governed, tender, thankful, blameless, yet with all this agitated, stretching out his arms for something beyond."

Essay on Marcus Aurelius. "Those who were not handsome were at least happy; and happiness is a rare improver of your hardfavored visage."

The Sketch-Book,

The Christmas Dinner. "But then he conceives him to possess the qualities most requisite for a conspirator, . . . courage, imperturbable coolness, . . . and inviolable fidelity."

LESSON XXX.

COMPARISON.

I. Comparison of adjectives.

Redgauntlet.

Remember when comparing two objects to use the comparative degree; the superlative is used in speaking of more than two; e.g.

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"And after supper all the heroes clapped their hands, and called on Orpheus to sing; but he refused, and said, 'How can I, who am the younger, sing before our ancient host?"" The Greek Heroes, The Argonauts.

"I'm the most remarkable of all the five that were in

the shell."

ANDERSEN, Five Out of One Shell.

II. Comparison of substantives.

a. Remember when making a comparison between one object and the other members of the class to which it belongs, not to omit "other," or some like word, in the second term of the comparison.1

EXAMPLES.

Incorrect Form. Man is altogether different from every animal, every living creature known.

This fierce spirit of liberty is stronger in the English colonies probably than in any people of the earth.

To serve King William for interest's sake would have

been a monstrous

hypocrisy and treason. Her pure conscience could no more have consented to it than to a theft, a forgery, or any base action.

Correct Form.

"Man is altogether different from every other animal, every other living creature known." RICHARD JEFFERIES, The Story of My Heart.

"This fierce fierce spirit of liberty is stronger in the English colonies probably than in any other people of the earth." BURKE, Speech on

Conciliation with America.

"To serve King William for interest's sake would have been a monstrous hypocrisy and treason. Her pure conscience could no more have consented to it than to a theft, a forgery, or any other base action." Henry Esmond.

1 This caution applies especially to a comparison made by means of the comparative degree or the correlatives "so

as."

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