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I. Examples illustrating the use of "should" (auxiliary verb) (a) in the future tense of the indicative mood, thrown into the past form,1 and (b) in the future tense of the subjunctive.

a. Indicative mood.

1. "He said he should get rid of his cold when he went out wood-cutting, and had to saw and split wood; for he was sawyer-master to the firewood guild."

ANDERSEN, Twelve by the Mail.

2. "Sir Roger observing that I listened with great attention to his account of a people who were so entirely new to me, said that if I would, they should tell our fortunes." The Spectator, No. 130, July 30, 1711.

b. Subjunctive mood.

1. "I should be sorry to lose them, but I shan't let them stay if I don't see them gaining character and manliness." Tom Brown at Rugby.


"And if I should live to be

The last leaf upon the tree

In the spring,

Let them smile, as I do now,

At the old forsaken bough

Where I cling." HOLMES, The Last Leaf.

II. Examples illustrating the use of "would" (auxiliary verb) (a) in the future tense of the indicative mood,

1 See footnote, p. 80.

thrown into the past form,1 and (b) in the future tense of the subjunctive.

a. Indicative mood.

1. "He felt that now the right and wrong of the whole matter would be made to appear."

HAWTHORNE, Biographical Stories, Benjamin Franklin. 2. "He spent his evenings cutting the wooden soles for skates, for he knew, he said, that in a few weeks there would be occasion to use these amusing shoes."

b. Subjunctive mood.

Twelve by the Mail.

1. "My father,' she said, 'would stoop to any deed of treachery for the sake of gold."" The Story of Roland. 2. "One would really have thought that something important was going on by the duck pond; but nothing was going on." ANDERSEN, The Neighbouring Families.

3. King Henry. "I would not lose so great an honour
As one man more, methinks would share from me,
For the best hope I have."
King Henry V., iv. 3.


Give the mood and tense of each italicised form, distinguishing between notional and auxiliary verbs in the indicative and in the subjunctive mood.

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1. "They never meant to do any more, -the Bandarlog never mean anything at all,-but one of them invented what seemed to him a brilliant idea, and he told all the others that Mowgli would be a useful person to keep in the tribe." The Jungle Book, Kaa's Hunting.

2. "So they made themselves ready to help him when he should call upon them." Stories of the East from Herodotus.

1 See footnote, p. 80.

3. Bolingbroke. "What would you have me do?" King Henry V., ii. 3.

4. "And they strained their eyes to watch him to the last, for they felt that they should look on him no more." The Greek Heroes, The Argonauts.

5. "Toomai knew that so long as he lay still on Kala Nag's neck nothing would happen to him."

The Second Jungle Book, Toomai of the Elephants.

6. "For I would see the sun rise upon the glad New TENNYSON, New Year's Eve.


7. "O King, the men against whom thou art preparing to make war, have tunics of leather, and all their other garments also are of leather, and for food they have not what they would, but what they can get."

Stories of the East from Herodotus.

8. "There is nothing that would amuse you."

Twice Told Tales, The Sister Years.

9. "Could I revive within me

Her symphony and song,

To such a deep delight 'twould win me
That with music loud and long

I would build that dome in air,

That sunny dome, those caves of ice!
And all who heard should see them there,
And all should cry, Beware! Beware!"

COLERIDGE, Kubla Khan.

10. Portia. "But lest you should not understand me


I would detain you here some day or two."

The Merchant of Venice, III. 2.

11. King Henry. "By my troth, I will speak my con

science of the king. I think he would not wish himself anywhere but where he is."

12. Bates. "Then I would he were here alone; so should he be sure to be ransomed, and a many poor men's lives saved." King Henry V., iv. 1.

13. "I told him on that day when he crammed his head and shoulders into this cave hunting for thy life, Little Frog,-I told him that the hunter would be the hunted." The Jungle Book, Tiger! Tiger!

14. "But as this did not seem to make the lips quite red enough, Violet next proposed that the snow-child should be invited to kiss Peony's scarlet cheek."

The Snow Image. 15. "But tell me now, were I to give you a letter, what would you do to get it forward?" Redgauntlet.

16. "It would do one's heart good to hear, on a club night, the shouts of merriment, the snatches of song, and now and then the choral bursts of half a dozen discordant voices." The Sketch-Book, Little Britain.

17. "Therefore I would fain bind him with an oath that he will deliver it to them that should have it in the city of Argos." Iphigenia among the Taurians.

18. "I remember the players have often mentioned it as an honour to Shakespeare that, in his writing, whatsoever he penned he never blotted out a line. My answer hath been, Would he had blotted a thousand."

BEN JONSON, Timber, or Discoveries. 19. "There was a curious drawl in the voice that made Mowgli turn to see whether by any chance the Panther were making fun of him.”

The Second Jungle Book, The Spring Running.

20. "Pegasus whinnied, and, turning back his head, rubbed his nose tenderly against his rider's cheek. It was his way of telling him that though he had wings and was an immortal horse, yet he would perish, if it were possible for immortality to perish, rather than leave Bellerophon behind." A Wonder-Book, The Chimæra.

21. " They sent certain men in a ship of fifty oars, who should see for themselves how things were with Cyrus and the Ionians." Stories of the East from Herodotus.

22. "They seemed positively to think that the snowchild would run about and play with them."


The Snow Image.


I. Be careful not to replace "to," the sign of the infinitive, by the conjunction "and; " e.g.

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II. When a verb compounded with a past participle and a verb compounded with an infinitive are used together, be careful not to omit either the participle or the infini

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