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The Bureau of Civil Service.-The object of the Civil Service rules is to secure for the service of the government a class of employees of upright character and good qualifications for their special work. Without some system of appointment to the government service based on the merits of the candidates many positions would be filled by the favorites of those in power. Inferior men would receive appointment and promotion, and deserving men would fail of appointment, unless they possessed personal or political friends among the appointing officials.

The Bureau of Civil Service examines candidates for government employ. It inquires into their character, health, education, and experience. It sees that the regulations governing their hours of work, their leaves of absence, their pay, and their promotion are observed. Those who are in the classified civil service may not be dismissed, except for good cause and after a formal investigation. Thus the Bureau of Civil Service not only protects the government against incapable and unworthy employees, but it protects the employee against the prejudice or injustice of his superior.

The Bureau of Health.-The object of the Bureau of Health is to promote the public health of the Islands. It is not its duty to care for the health of individuals, unless their condition affects the health of all the people. The Bureau of Health takes measures to prevent the spread of epidemic diseases, like the small-pox, over the Islands. It studies the causes and cure of diseases of this sort, whether they affect man or beast, and spreads information among the people about the best means of guarding against

such diseases. It is probable that each year the Bureau of Health saves some thousands of lives in the Philippines that otherwise would be lost.

The Bureau of Health has the direction of the public hospitals of the government, including the Civil Hospital at Manila, the Sanitarium at Baguio, Benguet, and the prisons in Manila and elsewhere. Besides these duties it has the supervision of the provincial and municipal boards of health thruout the Philippines.

The Bureau of Health may make such regulations as seem best to prevent the spread of disease from place to place within the Islands. No bureau is more far-reaching or of more general interest to Filipinos. than the Bureau of Health. Ignorant people often try to defeat the aims of this bureau by concealing information about epidemic diseases and violating the sanitary regulations. The state has no worse enemies than such people. They not only endanger their own health and lives but also the health and lives of others.

The Bureau of Lands.-The Bureau of Lands has charge of the survey, sale, leasing and homesteading of the public lands of the Philippine Islands, except those lands which are under the control of the Bureau of Forestry. The public lands of the Philippines have. never been fully surveyed; therefore the work of this bureau is of the utmost importance for the perfecting of titles to lands and the encouragement of people to settle on the lands of the government.

The Bureau of Science.-The object of the Bureau of Science is to secure and spread information respecting a great variety of matters which require scientific

investigation. This bureau includes the Biological Laboratory, the Division of Mines, and the Division of Ethnology. In the Biological Laboratory the natural products of the Philippines, agricultural, mineral, and others, are examined with a view to determining their value for medicinal, industrial, or commercial purposes, as well as for purely scientific ends. All progressive governments carry on work of this sort. While such work is expensive and in many cases seems to bring no direct return to the people, experience has shown that in the end these investigations return millions to the pockets of the taxpayers in the prevention of disease, the discovery of improved methods of production, and the development of new industries.

The Division of Mines surveys the mineral lands of the Philippines, and determines the location of the valuable minerals. It makes the work of the prospector and the miner easier and more profitable, thus greatly contributing to the development of the mineral riches of the country.

The Division of Ethnology conducts researches into the origin, distribution, habits and customs of the wild tribes of the Philippines. These mountain and forest dwellers, like children, are unable to think wisely for themselves in matters of government. The business of the Division of Ethnology is to ascertain the facts that will enable the lawmakers of the Philippines to govern these wild people for their best interests.

The Bureau of Agriculture. Few bureaus are of greater immediate importance to the Filipinos than the Bureau of Agriculture. This bureau investigates

the best methods of growing the food plants of the Philippines, introduces new varieties into the Islands, and spreads information regarding all facts of value to the farmer. It distributes seeds and young plants, freely or at small cost. In several places it conducts experimental farms, and at times it gives exhibitions of the proper use of improved forms of agricultural machinery. It also studies the causes and prevention of disease among farm animals.

The work of the Bureau of Agriculture could not be done by the private farmer. This bureau gathers for the information of all the farmers the results of the experience of the most successful farmers in all parts of the Philippines.

The Bureau of Forestry.-One of the greatest natural resources of the Philippines is its immense and valuable forests. It is estimated that half of the surface of these Islands is covered with forests. Very little use has been made of these forests. The work of the Bureau of Forestry is to determine the location, number, and classification of the trees which furnish the useful building woods of the Islands.

This bureau takes measures for the protection of the public forests from fires, and from destruction by private persons. It regulates the giving of licenses for the cutting of timber, and thus makes the forests pay a revenue to the people. For a period of five years from Oct. 26, 1905, any resident of the Philippines may take from the public forests without license and free of charge such timber, other than timber of the first group, and such other forest products, as well as stone and earth, as he may need for his personal

use or that of his family. This exception to the law is made for the benefit of the poor.

The Bureau of Quarantine Service.-The work of this bureau is to guard the Islands against the introduction of epidemic diseases from foreign countries. It inspects the ships and passengers arriving from other lands, and makes the necessary regulations to place in quarantine ships which come from ports infected with contagious disease. To "quarantine" is to shut off from communication with others for a certain length of time persons or ships arriving from places infected with contagious diseases. The quarantine regulations are often very inconvenient and expensive for merchants and travellers, but they are absolutely necessary for the preservation of the public health.

The Weather Bureau. This bureau gathers and publishes daily reports respecting the weather. For the benefit of the public, especially of the farmer and the sailor, it predicts the coming of typhoons and rains. It also keeps a scientific record of the winds, rainfall, temperature, and other matters relating to the weather of the Islands.

The Bureau of Constabulary.-The Constabulary is not an army, but an Insular police force. Its object is to preserve order in time of peace. The United States Army, of which the Filipino Scouts are a part, serves to protect the Islands against invasion and serious internal revolts. While the Constabulary may assist in this work it is very important both for the people and the members of the Constabulary to remember that it is a peace organization,

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