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or steps between the power you now exercise and complete autonomy. Will this Assembly and its successor manifest such an interest in the welfare of the people and such clear headed comprehension of their sworn duty as to call for a greater extension of political power to this body and to the people whose representative it is? Or shall it by neglect, obstruction, and absence of useful service make it necessary to take away its existing powers on the ground that they have been prematurely granted? Upon you falls the heavy responsibility. I am sure that you will meet it with earnestness, courage, and credit."

Organization of the First Assembly.-The First Philippine Assembly chose as its speaker, or president, the Hon. Sergio Osmeña, delegate from Cebu. The speaker of the Assembly has great power, greater on the whole than that of any officer of the government, except the Governor-General. It is in his power, by the choice of those who shall serve on the various committees, by his control of the speakers who address the Assembly, and by other means, to exercise a very great influence upon the course of legislation.

The work of the Assembly is largely done by committees, which investigate subjects of legislation and make recommendations to the Assembly as to the proper legislation. The standing committees to which specific legislation will be referred for consideration are twenty-five in number. The variety of subjects upon which legislation takes place may be understood from the following list of these committees:

Elections; Rules; Appropriations; Law; Public Instruction; Public Works; Police; Health and Sanitation; Agriculture; Commerce and Industry; Banks and Currency; Patents; Mines and Public Lands; Forestry; Navigation; Posts; Railways; Provincial and Municipal Affairs; Accounts and Expenditures of the Assembly; Compilation and Codification of Laws; City of Manila; International Relations (including relations with the United States); and the following joint committees, which will meet with committees of the Commission: Library and Printing; Proposed Laws, and Committee on the City of Manila.

The Message of the Governor-General. One of the annual duties of the President of the United States is to transmit to Congress at its opening a message reviewing the progress of the country and pointing out its needs. In the Philippines this duty was performed before the First Philippine Assembly by the Governor-General, the Hon. James H. Smith. conclusion of this message reads as follows:

The

"Today 80 assemblymen, elected by popular vote at the general elections held on the 30th day of July of this year, assume their part in the affairs of government, and upon them now devolves a stewardship of which a rigid accounting will be exacted by history, by their own people, and by other peoples struggling to take their part in the onward march of civilization. The service rendered by Filipino officials, whatever their office and wherever employed, has been of the most pronounced benefit and advantage to the land of their birth. That which is to be rendered and will be rendered by the Philippine Assembly cannot be measured. On the Philippine Assembly more than on any other branch of the Philippine Government, depends the future of the Philippine Islands, and on the energy, the earnestness, the devotion to duty, the self-sacrifice, the unselfishness, and above all things, the entire conservatism and sane judgment of its members, depends the realization of the hopes and the ideals of the Philippine people. If this Assembly fails of its purpose, the Filipino people who have looked to it to demonstrate their capacity to legislate wisely and well will have just reason to regret that the high privilege of participating in the making of the laws to govern them was ever conceded. If on the other hand success attends it and, all the circumstances considered, the product of its labors compares not unfavorably with that of other legislative bodies, no names will shine brighter on the pages of Philippine history than those of the members of the First Philippine Assembly.”

Delegates to the First Philippine Assembly.-The following is the list of the 80 delegates whom the Philippine electorate chose in 1907 to represent them in the First Philippine Assembly.

Albay.-Almonte, Tomás; Imperial, Carlos A.; Roco, Angel. Ambos Camarines.-Aréjola, Tomás; Rey, Manuel; Alvarez, Francisco.

Antique.—Jiménez, Pedro V.

Bataan.-Lerma, José M.

Batangas.-Agoncillo, Felipe; Orense, Eusebio; Catigbac,

Gregorio.

Bohol.-Borja, Candelario; Clarín, José; Boilés, Eutiquio.
Bulacan.-Velarde, Aguedo; Guerrero, Leon M.
Cagayan.-Guzmán, Pablo; Lasam, Gabriel.

Capiz.-Picazo, Eugenio; Altavás José; Mobo, Simeón.
Cavite.-Palma, Rafael.

Cebu.-Rodríguez, Celestino; Osmeña, Sergio; Soto, Filemón; Ruiz, Alejandro; Galicano, Troadio; Causing, Casiano; Rodríguez, Pedro.

Ilocos Norte.-Javier, Irineo; Pobre, Baldomero.

Ilocos Sur.-Singson y Encarnación, Vicente; Mina, Maximino; Villamor, Juan.

Iloilo.-Avanceña, Amando; Jalandoni, Nicolás; Laguda, Salvador; Hernández, Adriano; Dorillo, Regino; Claravall, Nicasio P.

La Laguna.-Paterno, Pedro P.; Oben, Crispín; Asprer, Andrés; Sandueta, Francisco.

Leyte. Alkuino, Quiremón; Demetrio, Salvador K.; Peñaranda, Florentino; Veyra, Jaime C. de.

Manila.-Gómez, Dominador; Guerrero, Fernando Ma.
Mindoro. Adriático, Macario.

Misamis.-Corrales, Carlos; Corrales, Manuel.

Nueva Ecija.-Gabaldón, Isauro.

Occidental Negros.-Jayme, Antonio; Mapa, Dionisio; Montilla, Agustín.

Oriental Negros.-Rovira, Leopoldo; Locsin y Armada, Vicente.

Palawan.-Patero, Santiago.

Pampanga.-Mercado, Mónico; Aguas, Marcelino.

Pangasinan.-Padilla, Nicanor; Reyes, Deogracias; Alvear Juan; Fenoy, Lorenzo; Gonzáles, Matías.

Rizal.-Lukbán y Rilles, Cayetano; Revilla y San José, Bartolomé.

Samar.-Rosales, Honorio; Sinko, Luciano; Daza, Eugenio. Sorsogon.-Vera, Vicente de; Chaves, Presbitero Pedro; Soriano, Francisco.

Tarlac.-Cojuanco, Melecio; Pineda, Aurelio.
Tayabas.-Quezon, Manuel; Gala, Emiliano.
Zambales.-Barretto, Alberto.

First Joint Resolution of the Legislature.-The first joint resolution of the Philippine Legislature, that is the first resolution passed by the Commission and Assembly deliberating in joint session, was a message

to the President of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt, expressing the gratitude of the Legislature and of the people of the Philippines for the establishment of the Assembly. In part it is as follows:

"Whereas the creation of the Philippine Assembly composed of members elected by popular vote and the constitution of the Philippine Legislature, comprising the Philippine Commission and the Philippine Assembly, mark an epoch in the history of the Philippine Islands and of the people thereof; and

Whereas, the people of the Philippine Islands fully recognize in the action taken by the Government of the United States in creating said Assembly a proof of its confidence in said people as well as a continuation of the democratic traditions of said government, and a clear demonstration of its liberal intentions with respect to the people of the Philippine Islands:

Now, therefore, be it resolved by the Philippine Commission and the Philippine Assembly: That on their own behalf and on behalf of the people of the Philippine Islands they convey to the President of the United States, and thru him to the Congress and the people of the United States, their profound sentiments of gratitude and high appreciation of the signal concession made to the people of the Islands of participating directly in the making of the laws which shall govern them."

Roosevelt's Response.-In reply to the above joint resolution President Roosevelt sent a cable message expressing his thanks and his gratification at the opening of the Assembly. In closing he said:

"The future of the Filipino people depends in a great measure on your good judgment, restraint, and capacity to subordinate all personal interests and differences to the interests of your country as a whole. I not only hope but believe that you will be found ever true to the honorable responsibility which has become yours."

CHAPTER IX

THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS

Executive Duties of the Governor-General.-The Governor-General is the chief executive of the Philippine Islands. He is responsible for the proper execution of the laws passed by the Philippine Legislature. It is his duty to see that these laws are promulgated thruout the Islands and are properly administered by the officers of the insular, provincial, and municipal governments. Most of his orders are transmitted thru the Executive Bureau, which is under his special supervision. The Governor-General is also the executive head of the Bureau of Civil Service and the Bureau of Audits. These three bureaus are placed under his immediate direction because, as we shall learn, they are the bureaus whose operations extend most widely thru the Philippine Islands.

The government of the city of Manila is also under the executive direction of the Governor-General. The Governor-General may, further, issue executive orders, within the limitations of the law, affecting any branch of the public service.

An occasional duty of the Governor-General is to issue proclamations on behalf of the President of the United States, of Congress, or on his own authority in the exercise of his duties.

Division of Executive Duties.-The executive work of the commissioners is quite as important as their legislative duties. It is broadly grouped into four divisions, known as the four executive departments.

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