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prepare or draft laws. The original preparation of a law for action by the Commission is usually made by committees of the Commission. Standing committees are appointed from members of the Commission only, but special committees to draft and recommend laws are composed of members of the Commission and other persons. These committees make investigations and report the results with their recommendations for legislation. The actual law, or resolution, is then drafted, usually by individual members of the Commission, or by the chiefs of bureaus.

The Passage of a Bill.-The law, or "bill," as it is called before it becomes a law, is read in the presence of the Commission, and then passed or rejected by a majority vote of the members present. This is the "short method" of passing a law. The more important bills are enacted much more slowly. In the case of bills upon which public sessions are to be held the proposed law is first translated into Spanish and copies are printed in English and Spanish for distribution to the public, so that it may intelligently discuss the bill.

All laws passed by the Philippine Commission, and the same is true of the acts of the Assembly, are enacted by authority of the United States, that is by the authority of Congress; since Congress "reserves the power and authority to annul the same."

The laws of the Commission become operative from the date of their enactment and publication, if no other date is fixed; that is, such laws as do not require the approval of the Philippine Assembly. Such acts of the Commission state in the act when and how

they shall take effect.

An act of the Commission that was not published would not be a law.

In the interpretation of the laws passed by the Legislature the English text of the law governs the meaning, except where obvious errors of language exist.

The acts of the Commission and the acts of the Legislature as a whole, together with important resolutions of either house, are published in the Official Gazette. This publication appears weekly in both English and Spanish and contains besides the acts and resolutions of the Legislature, the Executive orders of the Governor-General, the decisions of the Supreme Court, and other important official information. The Official Gazette is edited by the Reporter of the Supreme Court.

II-THE PHILIPPINE ASSEMBLY

Condition of Establishment.-The law establishing the Philippine Assembly is contained in Section 7 of the "Act temporarily to provide for the administration of the affairs of civil government in the Philippine Islands and for other purposes," approved by the President July 1, 1902. No law of greater importance in the development of representative government in the Philippines was ever passed. The condition on which the Assembly was granted to the Philippines was that complete peace should exist for a period of two years from the publication of the Philippine census of 1903 (published in 1905). The law stated:

"That two years after the completion and publication of the census, in case such condition of general and complete peace with recognition of the authority of the United States

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shall have continued in the territory of said islands not inhabited by Moros or other non-Christian tribes and such facts have been certified to the President by the Philippine Commission, the President upon being satisfied thereof shall direct said Commission to call, and the Commission shall call, a general election for the choice of delegates to a popular assembly of the people in said territory in the Philippine Islands, which shall be known as the Philippine Assembly.'

In accordance with this law an election for delegates to the first Philippine Assembly was held in the Christian provinces on the 30th of July, 1907.

Apportionment of Delegates.-The law governing the number and distribution of the delegates is as follows:

"Said Assembly shall consist of not less than fifty nor more than one hundred members, to be apportioned by said Commission among the provinces as nearly as practicable according to population: Provided that no province shall have less than one member: And provided further that provinces entitled by population to more than one member may be divided into such convenient districts as the said Commission may deem best."

The Commission has divided the provinces into eighty election districts each of which is entitled to elect one delegate to the Assembly. The rule of apportionment is that each province shall have at least one delegate and if its population is more than 90,000 it shall have one delegate for every 90,000 inhabitants, and one delegate for every major fraction of 90,000 remaining. For example, a province with 134,000 inhabitants would have one delegate, while one with 136,000 inhabitants would have two.

The apportionment of delegates to the First Philippine Assembly was as follows:

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It will be seen that Manila is reckoned as a province in the apportionment and election of delegates to the Assembly. It will also be noticed that thirtyone delegates, or nearly half, are from the Visayan islands, and that Luzon furnishes forty-four delegates, or a little more than half. In case of change in the boundaries of provinces or the creation of new provinces the apportionment of delegates would be readjusted in the provinces affected by the change.

Election of Delegates.-The rules governing the conduct of the elections to the Assembly will be found in Chapter XI. All municipal electors are qualified to vote for assemblymen. All qualified electors of an election district, who are twenty-five years or more of age are entitled to offer themselves as candidates for election to the Assembly. Delegates hold office for two years from the first of January next following their election.

Sessions of the Legislature.-The law states that:

"The legislature shall hold annual sessions, commencing on the first Monday of February in each year and continuing not exceeding ninety days thereafter (Sundays and legal holidays not included): Provided that the first meeting of the legislature shall be held upon the call of the Governor within ninety days

after the first election. The legislature may be called in special session at any time by the civil governor for general legislation, or for action on such specific subjects as he may designate. No special session shall continue longer than thirty days, exclusive of Sundays.

Methods of Procedure.-The Assembly itself determines whether its members have been properly elected, chooses its officers, and adopts such rules as it sees fit for the conduct of its business. At the opening of the First Assembly it adopted temporarily the rules of order of the House of Representatives. The law establishing the Assembly defines the following particulars regarding the conduct of its business:

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"The Assembly shall be the judge of the elections, returns. and qualifications of its members. A majority shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members. It shall choose its speaker and other officers, and the salaries of its members and officers shall be fixed by law. It may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two-thirds expel a member. It shall keep a journal of its proceedings, which shall be published, and the yeas and nays of the members on any question shall, on the demand of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal."

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Commissioners to the United States.-The only further provision of the law constituting the Assembly is its authorization by Congress to choose and send to the United States, in conjunction with the Philippine Commission, two Commissioners who shall represent the interests of the Philippines at the seat of the federal government at Washington. The conditions that govern the selection of these commissioners are thus stated in the act of 1902:

"That at the same time with the first meeting of the Philippine Legislature, and biennially thereafter, there shall be chosen by said Legislature, each house voting separately, two resident commissioners to the United States, who shall be entitled to an

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