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before there was almost anarchy; they increased commerce, introduced education and Christianity, and made civilization possible.

The Treaty of Paris.-The Treaty of Paris between Spain and the United States became operative upon the exchange of the ratifications of the treaty, on April 11, 1899. From that date the United States became legally and fully responsible for the government of the Philippines. This treaty said, among other things:

"The civil rights and political status of the native inhabitants of the territories hereby ceded to the United States shall be determined by the Congress. The inhabitants of the territories over which Spain relinquishes, or cedes, her sovereignty shall be secured in the free exercise of their religion."

The reason for not determining in the treaty the civil and political rights which the Filipinos should enjoy under the government of the United States was because these rights could be granted by Congress only after it had become fully acquainted with the needs of the Islands and the condition of their people. The first form of government established by the United States in the Philippines was a temporary military government.

The Military Government.-The President of the United States, as commander-in-chief of the army and navy, was the sole lawgiver of the Philippines till July 1, 1902, when the act of Congress "temporarily to provide for the administration of the affairs of civil government in the Philippine Islands" was approved. It is customary in time of war for the army of occupation to regulate the civil affairs of the country till peace and civil government are established. Such


a method of government is called military rule, or martial law. Military rule is monarchical in principle, because the laws proceed from the will of one man. Usually the people are not consulted, and they must obey without question. "Military necessity" is the rule by which all regulations are made. Any personal or political right of the people may be suspended under military rule. The Commanding General in the Philippines was the actual governor of the Islands in this period, but his authority was wholly derived from the President, who directed him what to do in all more important matters.

It is necessary also to note that beginning September 1, 1900, the first Philippine Commission had authority to pass laws relating to the civil government of the Islands, and, further, that shortly before the inauguration of Mr. Taft as first civil governor, July 4, 1901, civil government was established in many of the provinces. Thus the period in which the President was supreme extended till July 1, 1902, but the period during which the army was supreme lasted only till September 1, 1900. On July 4, 1902, civil government was extended to the Islands as a whole.

The Instructions of McKinley.-We shall see the spirit in which the President began the task of governing the Philippines from the instructions of President McKinley to the Commanding General of the army. These instructions were made known to the Filipinos August 14, 1898. Among other things the following was said:

"The commander of the United States forces, now in possession, has instructions from his government to assure the people that he has not come to wage war upon them, nor upon any

party or faction among them, but to protect them in their homes, in their employments, and in their personal and religious rights. The government established among you by the government of the United States is a government of military occupation; and for the present it is ordered that the municipal laws, such as affect private rights of persons and property, regulate local institutions, and provide for the punishment of crime, shall be considered as continuing in force, so far as compatible with the purposes of military government, and that they be administered thru ordinary tribunals substantially as before occupation; but by officials appointed by the government of occupation."

Continuation of Spanish Laws.-By force of this proclamation the Spanish laws relating to municipal or territorial law and to private rights were continued in force and remain in force at the present day, except so far as changed by military order, act of Congress, or of the Philippine Commission. That is to say, by the military occupation and the civil legislation since 1898 only such Spanish laws have been changed as it seemed necessary to alter.

Thus under the direction of the President, and with due consideration for the rights of the Filipinos and the system of laws under which they had lived, the military government established and organized the various departments and bureaus thru which the civil government is administered in time of peace. Even the system of public schools was established under the rule of the military.

A most important act of the military government was the establishment of separate municipal governments in many of the municipalities. Although the insurrection against American rule had broken out, the Military Governor, on March 29, 1900, gave many municipalities self-government by permitting them to elect their own municipal officials.

The eager desire of both the people and the President of the United States to establish general civil government as soon as possible led to the organization of the Philippine Commission at a time when a European power would have kept the Philippines under military rule for some years longer.






The First Commission.-In January, 1899, President McKinley appointed the First Philippine Commission, consisting of five members, of whom the Hon. Jacob Schurman, President of Cornell University, was the president. The object of this Commission was not to organize a government, but to make careful inquiry into the history, resources, and political and social conditions of the Philippines and their inhabitants, and to recommend to the President a suitable form of temporary government for these Islands.

Regulative Principles of American Government.In a proclamation to the Filipinos, dated Manila, April 4, 1899, the Commission stated the "regulative principles" by which the United States would be guided in its relations with the Filipinos. These statements may be taken as the promises of the President of the United States to the Filipinos. Later they were confirmed by the approval of the Congress, so they are really the promises of the United States to the Filipinos. These principles may be stated as follows:

1) The absolute supremacy of the United States government in the Philippines.

2) "The most ample liberty of self-government reconcilable with a wise, just, stable, effective, and economical administration of public affairs, and compatible with the sovereign and international rights and obligations of the United States."

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