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united in the support of the same candidates for office. The political party has no legal standing; it is a private organization. Political parties are organized thru local, state, and national committees. The local party organizations elect delegates to the state and national conventions of the party, in which the candidates for state and federal offices are nominated. Then the entire party proceeds to work for the election of its candidates.

The Primary. The primary, or local meeting of the members of a party, is the most important element of party organization; for in the primary the people exchange opinions and express their will directly. The primary is the meeting in which the delegates to the state conventions of the party are chosen.

In some of the states the term "primary" is applied to the first meeting of the voters belonging to one political party of an election district, for the purpose either of choosing delegates, or of nominating candidates for office.

So important is it that these primaries be conducted properly that, altho the political parties are not governmental organizations, some states are placing the primaries under legal direction, so that they may be conducted honestly, like the official elections.

The Power of Political Parties.-The opinions and principles of political parties are not like the laws of the state and federal governments; they are easily and frequently changed. Yet these parties exert great influence. Thru the political parties the people of a great democracy are kept informed of the political condition of the country, and are awakened to an

interest in the affairs of the state. No great governmental policy in the United States can be adopted without the support of a political party. Persons are rarely chosen to very high office without previous nomination by a political party.

PART II

THE ORGANIZATION OF GOVERNMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES

CHAPTER VI

THE ESTABLISHMENT OF AMERICAN SOVEREIGNTY

Government in the Philippines Before 1898.—A complete understanding of the present system of government in the Philippines requires a knowledge of the growth of government in the Philippines up to 1898. The plan of this book does not permit a full account of the ancient Filipino forms of government, nor of the government established in these Islands by Spain. Readers who have "A Short History of the Philippines"* may find these governments described. in the following chapters of that book: III, VII, IX, XVII, XX, XXII, XXIII. For the benefit of those who cannot read these chapters the following sketch is given.

Government in the Philippines Before the Spanish Conquest.-At the time of the arrival of the Spaniards the unit of government in the Philippines was the

*"A Short History of the Philippines" by Prescott F. Jernegan. D. Appleton and Co., New York, 1904.

village. With few exceptions, each village of the ancient Filipinos was governed by its own headman, assisted by a council of old men. In some parts of the Islands there were loose confederations of several villages whose chiefs submitted to the most powerful headman of their number. These little governments were somewhat monarchical in character, since the position of headman was usually hereditary, and the will of the people as a whole was not followed.

Government of Spain in the Philippines.-The Spaniards established in the Philippines a colonial government conducted on monarchical principles. The Philippines were attached for governmental purposes to the vice-royalty of Mexico, a Spanish colony in North America, and were called a "captaincy-general." They were governed by the king of Spain thru a Captain-General aided (after 1584) by an Audiencia, or Supreme Court. In reality the Captain-General controlled the Supreme Court. Church and State were united, and the Archbishop of Manila was often as powerful in the affairs of government as the CaptainGeneral.

The Encomienda System.--At first the captainsgeneral ruled thru encomenderos, who were Spaniards and, at first, usually soldiers. The encomendero was given charge of an encomienda, which consisted of a tract of land together with the natives living on the land. He was at the same time judge, tax-collector, and governor. The encomienda system lasted till the injustices caused by the extortions of the encomenderos led Spain to abandon this form of gov

ernment.

Provincial and Municipal Government.-The Islands were gradually divided into provinces, under alcaldes, with civil government, or military districts, with military rule. The alcaldes combined the duties of governor and judge. They were allowed to carry on private trade during most of the period of Spanish rule, and they were always Spaniards, appointed by the King, or the Captain-General.

The towns, or municipalities, were governed by gobernadorcillos, who were Filipinos, but were entirely subject to the commands of the alcaldes. There was a very limited suffrage, for the election of municipal officials only.

Defects and Excellencies of the Spanish System.The weaknesses of the Spanish system of government in the Philippines were the following:

1) Lack of effective supervision; the subordinate officials of the government were too independent of the central government.

2) Slow administration of justice, and the corruption of judges.

3) Lack of an efficient civil service, with consequent favoritism.

4) An imperfect system of registration of titles to land.

5) Conflicts between the officials of the church and the government, and failure to enforce the laws.

6) The restriction of individual liberty of speech, of the freedom of press, and of the right of association. 7) Failure to train the Filipinos in self-govern

ment.

On the other hand, the Spaniards made many good laws; they established a central government, where

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