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never wrong; it is ever guided by reason and the upright and honorable conscience of the individual. The robber is not free, but is the slave of his own passions, and when we put him in prison we punish him precisely because he is unwilling to use true freedom. Liberty does not mean that we shall obey nobody, but commands us to obey those whom we have put in power and acknowledged as the most fit to guide us, since in this way we obey our own reason.

Other Duties of Government.-Besides the necessary functions, or duties, of every good government there are many things that the government may at times do with profit to the people. Some of these are of great value, like the construction of public roads, but they are not absolutely necessary to the existence of government. Whatever promotes commerce, industry, the public health, the education of the young, and the morals of the people may become a part of the duty of government. There is nothing which the government may not do for the prosperity of all, if it seem wise to do it. How shall we determine what tasks the government shall undertake? There should be some rules to keep the government from communism. What are they?

Public Works.-There are many public works, like good roads, which are too great for private individuals, or associations of private persons, to undertake. Such works it may become the duty of the government to construct. A great harbor, for example, is used by the people of many towns and provinces. It is not right that one town should bear the whole expense of improving such a harbor. What is for the benefit of all should be done at the expense of all.

Other Aids to Public Progress.-There are many other tasks of government, which we may call aids

to public progress. Among these are public education, scientific investigations of the mineral and forest resources of the country, experiments in agriculture, the introduction of new industries, and the like. There is no limit to the possibilities of governmental action, because the needs of the people are constantly growing and changing, as civilization advances and changes. What it was unwise for the government to do formerly may be wise now; what is wise now may be unnecessary, or even harmful, tomorrow. The introduction of railroads into the Philippines makes necessary the enactment of many laws which were not necessary before. The rights of landowners, the protection of the lives of travellers, and many other things thus become the care of the government.

There are many useful undertakings which can be best done only by the strength of all the people. The postal service, the coining of money, the prevention of the spread of disease, the charting of the seas, and many similar offices, may be properly performed by the government, if it is able to do these things and at the same time accomplish the three necessary tasks of government. It would be a great mistake to try to engage in additional undertakings if the resources of the government were too small to maintain peace, justice, and the rights of the people while attempting other tasks.

Dangers of Governmental Action.-There is always danger that the government will try to do too many things at once. This leads to extravagant expenditure of the people's money. There is a limit to the extent to which a people may be taxed wisely, even when the taxes are to be used for the benefit of the people,

People usually cry out too soon against the burden of taxation. Often they object to taxes, not because these are really excessive but because they are unwilling to be taxed for the benefit of all the people. They wish to pay only such taxes as are spent directly for their own benefit. This is not patriotism, and a government should give no heed to such complaints.

On the other hand, experience shows that governments are often tempted to extravagance, that they attempt too many things, and attempt good enterprises too soon. The expenditures of a government should be carefully adjusted to the needs and the purse of the people. The government officials are not spending their private money, so there is danger that they will spend the public money too freely.

The greatest danger of governmental action is that it may interfere with the free growth of the individual. There are many things which governments sometimes try to do which properly relate only to the life of the individual. To tell people how they shall dress, what they shall eat and drink, and the like, is to make "sumptuary laws." Such laws always cause unrest and are usually unwise. The strength of a state is in the energy and resourcefulness of its people. These qualities are always most effective when exercised freely. Therefore the sort of governmental action that does for the people what they ought to do for themselves, or which prevents them from doing what does not interfere with the good of the state, is usually bad.

In seeking to secure a public good the government may conflict with the rights of individuals. There is danger that the good accomplished by some public

laws will be offset by the harm done in violating the interests of private persons. It should be remembered that the public is composed of individuals and that the public good means simply the good of the individuals who compose the public.

One of the most important rights which the government should be careful not to violate is the individual right to property. Next to life and health property is the most precious possession of the individual. Governmental action in regulating business, laying out streets, and securing some other ends, may easily cause great loss to individuals without giving a corresponding benefit to the public.

To be avoided above all, is the danger that the officials of the government shall think themselves and the government of more importance than the people. The government is "the servant of the people." When the laws become too numerous and interfere with many details of private life there is a tendency for government officials to become autocratic; that is, to act according to their own will and fancy, instead of according to the instructions of the people. In a representative democracy care must be taken that the government represent the will of the people and not that of the officials of whom the government is composed. The more duties a government assumes the greater its power becomes over the people. We shall see later what checks it is wise to establish to prevent the abuse of power by the government.



The Federal Republic.—Each state of the Union is a representative democracy, and the federal government formed by their union is also a representative democracy. To each of the states the Constitution of the United States guarantees a republican form of government. Thus the states are independent of each other but are subordinate to the federal government. This union of states forms a federal republic, the highest and latest form of governmental organization in the world.

It is important to observe that the powers of the federal government, whose seat is at the capital of the country, Washington, were wholly derived from the people of the states. As we shall see later, the provincial governments of the Philippines were created by the central government, and derive all their powers from that government. In the United States, on the contrary, the federal government was established by the people of the states, and has only such powers as were granted to it by them.

The general principle which defines the authority of the federal government over the state governments is that the federal government has authority in all matters that concern the interests of all the states, while each state regulates all matters that relate to itself alone.

Constitutional Government.-The federal government and the state governments are constitutional govern

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