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The Schools.-The organization of the schools contemplates a complete system of education from the primary grades to the University, with its professional courses of medicine, law, engineering, etc. The Philippine Medical School is the only school of University grade yet established by the Philippine Government.

At present there are 3530 primary schools. These schools are supported by municipal taxation, including certain funds from the internal revenue receipts and the land tax, as explained elsewhere. The superintending force, however, including the supervising teachers, and the text-books, are at present a charge of the Insular government. The superior wealth of the Insular government renders possible frequent aid at present to the municipal and provincial schools, aid which will be withdrawn as soon as the local centers of education become sufficiently prosperous. to maintain their own schools. There is no burden of taxation which more properly belongs wholly to a municipality than that for its schools. The ambition of every municipality should be to make every possible sacrifice both as a municipality and by the gifts of private citizens to support from its own funds its local schools.

One hundred and eighty-five intermediate schools have been established in the larger municipalities for the benefit of those who have the leisure and capacity for intermediate instruction. Since these schools instruct students from several municipalities they receive most of their support from the central government. Besides the regular intermediate schools there are the following special schools of intermediate grade,

-seventeen schools of domestic science, thirty-two schools of arts and trades, and five agricultural schools.

Modern education is more practical than that of former times. The most pressing want of the Philippines is better homes, better methods of cultivation, and the extension of the arts and industries. It is a part of the duty of education to provide instruction in correct housekeeping and to prepare the young for successful self-support, as well as to train the literary and artistic faculties of the mind and to give instruction in science and history. The demands of modern citizenship are so great and the life of a modern civilized people is so varied and rich in its activities that no single phase of education can wisely be allowed to receive more than its share of attention. The schools exist not to train all the youth in one mould, but to give to each the particular opportunity to develop his own powers in the way that will be most. useful to himself and to his country.

There are thirty-six provincial high schools, supported so far as possible at the expense of the provinces, since these schools are for the use of the children of all the municipalities of a province. For instruction in the various schools of the government educational system there are at present employed 800 American and 5640 Filipino school teachers, while 479,000 pupils were enrolled in the public schools in the school year 1906-1907. This number is little more than one-third of the total number of children of school age in the Philippines. There remains, therefore, necessity for the most strenuous effort on the part of patriotic citizens to enlarge the opportunities for the education of the Philippine youth.

CHAPTER XX

THE TRAINING OF THE CITIZEN

"Fellow countrymen:-No man has given greater proof than I of desiring liberties for our country, and I still desire them. But I make the training of the people a premise, so that they, by education and labor, may attain a personality of their own and become worthy of those liberties. In my writings I have recommended study and civic virtues to the people; without these redemption is impossible."-JOSÉ RIZAL.

The Basis of Good Citizenship.-Many things have already been said in this book about the training of the citizen. Patriotism, education, intelligence, courage in the use of the ballot, and other matters, have claimed our attention as means in the making of useful citizens. There are some other topics, however, that require the consideration of those who aim at the highest citizenship.

Above all it should not be forgotten that mere. instruction in the duties of citizenship does not alone make good citizens. Aristotle wisely said:

Instruction, tho it plainly has power to direct and stimulate the generous among the young. is as plainly powerless to turn the mass of men to nobility and goodness.

Good citizens are simply good men doing their political duty. To the influences of the home circle, of religion, of examples of patriotic manhood, and of racial and national pride, the state must look to furnish the material from which citizens are made.

Granting the existence of noble manhood and womanhood among a people, there are certain directions in which their minds may be turned to develop useful citizenship.

The Citizen's Part in Politics. The good citizen will take an active part in the political life of his country. Politics should not be left to office seekers and office holders. The whole duty of the citizen of a democracy is not comprised in obedience to the laws, still less in merely finding fault with the laws and the government. It is the interest and duty of every citizen to know the principles and plans of the political parties of his town, province, and country, to learn what he can about candidates for office and office holders, and to inform himself and others by every means about all that relates to the political life of his people.

This is what Rizal meant when he said that "civic virtues" were first necessary before a people could become worthy of political liberties. Every citizen should be thoroughly familiar with the government of his own municipality. The council meetings are open to the public; the councilor will explain to the people of his barrio what the municipal government is attempting; the monthly receipts and expenditures of the municipality are posted for public inspection; complaints may be made to the provincial governor if the laws are not justly executed. Each citizen, therefore, has every opportunity to examine, understand, and criticise the workings of his municipality government. There is no law that compels him to do this, but if he does not do it he has no right to call himself a patriot, or to ask for or expect political liberty. There is no liberty without responsibility and no fulfillment of responsibility without personal knowledge and effort. In a democracy, officers are chosen by the people not to think for the people, but

to execute the thoughts of the people. The people, therefore, must think about government. They must discover the facts for themselves and not believe all the politicians say. This is their right and duty. The Press. It is less easy to understand and take part in the political life of the province and the country than in that of the municipality. Most private citizens must learn about the politics of the province and the Archipelago from the newspapers, and from books. The Press is a powerful agency of political life in all modern countries. It is a useful and at the same time a dangerous source of information. It is useful because the Press furnishes news of the political progress of all parts of the country. For those who do not travel and do not meet others of wide knowledge the Press is the only means by which they may form intelligent opinions about the larger political life of his country. It reflects not only the progress of civilization in one's country and the march of important events, but presents the opinions and policies of political writers and the government. For these reasons newspapers are invaluable, and all citizens should read at least one newspaper.

On the other hand so powerful is the Press that it is often used by politicians and political parties to further their selfish ends. Sometimes newspapers are owned and published for the purpose of misleading the people instead of instructing them. If possible the citizen should learn what persons and influences are behind a newspaper. Then he may read its pages with discernment.

It should also be remembered that the writers of newspapers are merely men, who often gather their

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