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at the end of this period the lease may be renewed for another twenty-five years. For the first twentyfive years an annual rental of not less than fifty centavos a hectare must be paid. This rent must be paid one year in advance.



"We have laid the foundation of a primary and industrial educational system here which, if the same spirit continues in the Government, will prove to be the most lasting benefit which has been conferred on these Islands by Americans." -Wm. H. Taft.

Education by the State.-The Constitution of Massachusetts, adopted in 1780, is "the oldest written constitution in the world now in force." This famous document strikes the keynote of the American idea of public education in these words:

"Wisdom and knowledge as well as virtue, diffused generally among the body of the people, being necessary for the preservation of their rights and liberties, and as these depend upon the opportunities and advantages of education,-it shall be the duty of the legislature and magistrates in all future periods of this commonwealth to cherish the interests of literature and the sciences and all the seminaries of them; especially the University at Cambridge, public schools, and grammar schools in the towns."

The constitutions of the other states likewise provide that there shall be a general system of public education under the control of the state. This policy has been followed by the American government in the Philippines. The statement from the Constitution of Massachusetts, when analyzed, is seen to imply these assertions:

1. The duty of the state is to preserve the rights and liberties of all the people.

2. To understand and use these rights and liberties all people should be educated.

3. Therefore the state should sustain a complete system of public education from the primary school to the university.

Liberty of Private Education.-While it is an American principle that free general public education is the duty of the state, liberty is left to the family and to private bodies of citizens to share in the work of education. Both in the United States and in the Philippines the government welcomes the educational work of private institutions of learning. It does not compel those to attend the public schools who desire to attend private schools. The state insists only on a minimum of education for all, with opportunities, if possible, for the higher education of those who can profit by it. The function of the state with relation to private institutions of learning is to see that the standards of education are maintained and that nothing is taught that would endanger the growth and safety of the state.

In the Philippines, particularly, the government encourages private education, because with all its resources the government is not rich enough to give even an elementary education to all. The education of the whole people is exceedingly expensive. Many of the poor are unable to keep their children for years in the schools. The greatest danger to democracy is an ignorant populace; for ignorance breeds suspicion, folly, and vice; it enslaves the common people with the chains of poverty, and makes them the easy prey of the selfish rich and the unscrupulous politicians. For these reasons, and because the education of the masses in this country is so deficient, the govern

ment spends vast sums on free public education, and gives protection and encouragement to all worthy private educational institutions.

The Bureau of Education.-The organization of the school system of the Philippines differs from that of the United States in that it is prescribed and administered by the central government, while in the United States each state plans and carries on its own schools in the manner that seems best to it. In the Philippines the lack of resources in the provinces makes the support of the central government necessary. Therefore the public schools of the Islands are placed under the control of the Bureau of Education of the Insular government. This bureau is a part of the Department of Public Instruction, and is under the immediate charge of the Director of Education, who is the chief of the bureau.

The Director of Education.-The powers of the Director of Education are numerous and his responsibilities are great. Subject to the approval of the Secretary of Public Instruction and the limitations of the Civil Service rules, he appoints all the officers and employees of the Bureau of Education, except the two assistant directors of education. He assigns all insular teachers to their stations, determines their salary, makes their promotion, and regulates their discipline. In addition he prescribes the various courses of study to be pursued, decides upon the adoption of text-books subject to the approval of the Secretary of Public Instruction, as above stated, determines the location and number of the decides many other questions.

various schools, and There is a large body

of "school law" some of which has been enacted by the Commission, while much consists of administrative regulations issued by authority of the Secretary of Public Instruction, or the Director of Education. The Director is responsible for the proper application of these laws.

The School Divisions.-From the central office of the Bureau of Education in Manila the work of the school divisions is directed. There is one of these school divisions for each province of the Islands (one exception is pending, the uniting of Benguet and Union), and at the head of each is a division superintendent of schools. Within his division the superintendent has jurisdiction of the public schools of the province and its municipalities. He appoints the municipal teachers, fixes their salaries, assigns their stations, makes recommendations to the provincial board and municipal councils respecting school matters, and executes the orders of the Director of Education.

Besides the provincial school divisions there are at Manila the Philippine Normal School and the Philippine School of Arts and Trades, directed by superintendents. These are Insular schools, open to students from all the provinces. The city of Manila constitutes a separate school division.

Supervising Districts.-The school divisions are subdivided into supervising districts, of which there were 375 on October 1, 1907. The teachers in charge of these districts are called supervising teachers. They are in reality subordinate superintendents who combine with supervising work that of the teacher.

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