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In his immediate relation to the citizen, the president exercises more power than any other officer of the Philippine government. He is responsible for the observance in his municipality of the laws of the insular, provincial and municipal governments. He therefore is entitled to the respect of everyone so long as he discharges his duties with dignity and honor. He should regard as his reward the respect and gratitude of the people rather than any personal advantages to be derived from the abuse of his power. As a rule the president will be as good as the people who elected him desired. If they watch his acts, support him in a just and energetic administration. of his office, and register prompt complaints against any abuse of his position, they will greatly increase his efficiency. People who complain of the defects of their officials often have themselves to thank for the defects of their rulers. It is difficult for any officer to be better than the people who elect him.

The Duties of the Vice-President.-The vice-president fills the office of the president in case of the absence of the latter or his temporary inability to perform his duties. The vice-president is also a member of the council ex officio, that is, by virtue of his office.

The Duties of the Secretary.-The municipal secretary keeps a record of the business transacted by the municipal council. He certifies to the correctness of all warrants ordered by the council to be paid from the municipal treasury.

The secretary also keeps a record of all births, marriages, and deaths in the municipality, with their dates. All persons who celebrate marriages must report them to the secretary, and all physicians and midwives must report births and deaths that happen within their supervision. The recording of these events is made without charge.

The secretary must issue upon demand of any person a certified copy of any record within his control. For doing this he may receive a fee not to exceed ten centavos per hundred words. The records of the secretary must, during business hours, be open to inspection by all residents of the municipality and by all officers of any branch of the Philippine government.

The Duties of the Treasurer.-The municipal treasurer is appointed by the provincial treasurer, subject to the approval of the provincial board. He receives and keeps an account of all moneys paid to the treasury of the municipality, for which he must in all cases give a receipt. He pays out upon the president's warrant, countersigned by the secretary, all moneys authorized to be paid by the municipal council.

The treasurer must keep the municipal money separate from his own money, and he must not lend or otherwise use public money to his own profit. The treasurer is also the custodian of all municipal property other than money, and he keeps a record of the same. Before the third day of each month he must make a report to the president and the provincial treasurer of the receipts and expenditures of the preceding month.

Salaries of Municipal Officers.-The salaries of the president and the secretary are fixed by the municipal council, and that of the treasurer by the provincial board, but these salaries must not exceed the following amounts:

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The vice-president and the councilors do not receive salaries, except that the vice-president receives the salary of the president when he is acting in the place of the latter. The reason why these officers receive no salary is because the municipalities are too poor to pay them salaries at present. To serve in these offices is an honor and a duty of which a citizen should be proud. The members of the British House of Commons, and of several other famous legislative bodies, receive no pay.

The City of Manila.-The system by which the City of Manila is governed is laid down in a law called the Charter of the City of Manila. A municipal board of five members, one of whom is the chairman, make and administer the city ordinances. There is an advisory board, composed of Filipinos, citizens of Manila, which tenders advice to the municipal board, but has no power to modify legislation.

Since the City of Manila is the seat of the Insular government, many of its activities have a more than merely municipal bearing. Manila is, in a sense, the city of all Filipinos, because, more than the capitals of most countries, it dominates the social, business and governmental relations of all the Islands. For

this and other reasons it is not governed by popular vote of its citizens, but thru a system in many respects resembling a bureau. As stated above, the municipal board of Manila is under the executive supervision of the Governor-General.

The government of the City of Manila resembles in some respects that of Washington, the capital of the United States, since the latter is governed by Congress not by its citizens.

CHAPTER XIV

THE MUNICIPAL COUNCIL

Organization and Meetings.-The municipal council is a body of citizens chosen by the electors of the municipality to make the local ordinances, in accordance with the provisions of the Municipal Code. The council meets regularly every two weeks, and on special occasions whenever necessary. Special meetings may be called by the president or by any two members of the council, by giving each member of the council a written notice of the meeting.

A majority of all the members of a council constitutes a quorum. The regular meetings of the council must be public, so that all the citizens may know how the business of the municipality is being conducted, but private meetings may be held to vote upon appointments of the president. The council determines its own rules of procedure, that is the rules according to which it conducts its business.

The president presides at the meetings of the council, signs its journal of proceedings, and may recommend legislation that he deems necessary as to the passage of ordinances. The president, however, has no vote upon the passage of resolutions, except in case of a tie vote, when he casts the deciding vote.

The Passage of Ordinances.-The resolutions passed by the council are called ordinances, and have the force of laws within the limits of the municipality. If an ordinance creates an indebtedness for the municipality a majority of all the members of the council must vote

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