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one month to one year, or a fine of from one hundred to five hundred pesos, or both imprisonment and fine.

The penalty for voting when one knows that he is not entitled to vote is imprisonment for not less than one month nor more than two years, or a fine of from one hundred to one thousand pesos, or both fine and imprisonment.

Any person who, without lawful authority, obstructs or delays a voter who is on his way to the voting place, or tries to induce a voter to show before voting how he marks or has marked his ballot, or places a distinguishing mark upon a ballot not cast by himself, is subject to a fine of not more than one hundred pesos, or imprisonment for not more than three months, or both fine and imprisonment.

Any person who by threats tries to induce a voter to give or withhold his vote is subject to imprisonment for a period of from one month to one year, or a fine of from two hundred to five hundred pesos, or both fine and imprisonment.

The Purity of the Ballot.-These are some of the many corrupt practices forbidden by law. It is plain from these laws that it is an exceedingly difficult matter to assure the purity of the ballot. Elections that abound in corrupt practices are a mockery of democratic government. Nothing is more important to the integrity of a republic than the preservation of the sacredness of the ballot. The difficulties in surrounding the ballot with proper safeguards and the many opportunities for the vicious and the weak to defeat the purpose of the ballot demand a high degree of intelligence, self-reliance and public morality in a people who hope to govern themselves successfully

by popular vote. It is for this reason that William Penn said, "tho good laws do well, good men do better," and "Governments depend rather upon men than men upon governments."

There are certain officers and employees of the government who from their close relations with the people might by public speeches, or private efforts, without attempting to corrupt the voters, exercise too great personal influence upon the votes of electors. It is therefore forbidden any judge of the court of first instance, justice of the peace, provincial fiscal, or officer or employee of the Bureau of Education, or of the Constabulary, to aid any candidate or influence in any manner any municipal, provincial or Assembly election. The penalty for breaking this law is loss of office and disqualification from holding public office for five years.

The election law of the Philippines represents the results of the experience of centuries in purifying and defending the ballot from corruption. These laws cannot be too strictly enforced if popular government is ever to become a reality in the Philippines.

CHAPTER XII

THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENTS

The Three Classes of Provinces. The provinces of the Philippines are divided into three classes according to their form of government,-the Christian provinces, the non-Christian provinces, and the Moro Province. The Moro Province is chiefly inhabited by non-Christians, but its form of government is different from that of the other non-Christian provinces.

The necessity for three forms of provincial government arises from the fact that the people of the various provinces differ greatly in race, religion, customs, education, and political training. There is no more important principle of lawmaking than that the government and laws of a people should be suited to the peculiar character and habits of that people. As we have learned, there is no form of government that is best everywhere and all the time. The ideal form of government is a representative democracy, but not all peoples are fit and ready for that sort of rule. If the Moro were given complete self-government he would reestablish slavery; the Igorot, left to choose for himself would honor and reward head-hunting; the Negrito would have no government beyond family government. For these reasons three different forms of provincial government have been established.

The Need for Provincial Government.-It is proper to ask why provincial government is necessary. Why not govern the towns directly from Manila by the

central government? There are several reasons why this is not done. In the first place there are many local laws that need to be made to meet immediate needs. There would not be time to explain all these local needs to the central government. Moreover, without provincial government, too much power would be centered in the Insular government. The ideal of democracy is local rule; therefore, to prevent the central government from interfering too much in local matters, it is well to have provincial governments between the central and the municipal governments. This secures convenience and promptness of legislation, and preserves local self-rule.

Furthermore, there are many matters of common interest to the towns that require regulation. The roads and bridges between towns, the police regulations, and other matters, require some governing body that shall combine the authority of the several towns of a province.

This principle of mutual interests is what determines the boundaries of a province. The towns. that are near together, that have a number of common interests, and are inhabited by people of similar customs, should be united into one province.

Thus the provincial governments exist as a means by which the Insular government controls the towns and a method by which the towns do their joint tasks with the greatest efficiency.

Provincial Officers.-The officers of a Christian province are the governor, treasurer, third member of the provincial board, and the fiscal. The governor and the third member of the board are elected every two years by the electors of the municipalities of the prov

ince, as explained in Chapter XI. The provincial treasurer and the fiscal are appointed by the Governor-General, with the consent of the Commission, and hold office during their pleasure.

If the Governor-General has reason to believe that any provincial officer is guilty of disloyalty, dishonesty, oppression, or misconduct in office, he may suspend him from the discharge of the duties of his office, and, after investigation, may, with the consent of the Commission, remove him from office.

The Provincial Board.-The central governing body of a Christian province is the provincial board. This board acts in accordance with the provisions of the law known as the Provincial Government Act. The board consists of three members,-the governor, the treasurer, and the third member of the board.

The legislative powers of the provincial board are limited, since it may not pass any resolution contrary to the general laws of the Insular government. Moreover, the subjects upon which it may legislate are enumerated in the Provincial Government Act. Thus the board is prevented from taking away the liberties of the municipalities.

There are, however, a great many matters left to the discretion of the provincial board, and since two of the three members of the board are elected by the people of the province, the Christian provinces may be said to enjoy a large measure of self-government.

Legislative Duties of the Provincial Boards.-There is a variety of matters upon which the provincial board is authorized to take legislative action. In general the provincial board is responsible for the proper regulation of all matters that belong not to any single

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