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Society. The habit which men have of living in groups we call the social habit, and a group of men living in one place, or united by the same rules, we call a society. The entire human race is one society divided into many smaller societies. Even animals, like the ant and the bee, unite in groups to build their houses and get their food. So men unite in societies to help each other. Without society there could be no government; for government is an act of society; it is the method by which the social union is made secure and useful.

Government.-Government, then, is the system of control by which a society compels the obedience of all its members to laws, and to officers who administer the laws. It is an act of society as a whole; it speaks with authority to all; it rests upon laws made for the obedience of all, and it exists for the benefit of all the members of society. This is the definition


of ideal government. Actual governments sometimes exist for the benefit of the few, and rest upon laws which have not the support of society as a whole.

Government has grown from simple beginnings and passed thru many stages. We do not know how government began, but probably the earliest form of government was the patriarchal or family form.

The Family.—Among some primitive peoples there is no rule but that of the father. The father and his descendants form a society that even today, in some parts of the world, has no government higher than that of the oldest living male ancestor. In the deep forests of Mindoro and in the wilds of Mindanao wander single families who pay no tax and know no ruler but the father of the family. When a family is very large and other families spring from it the group of related families is sometimes called a clan and is governed by the oldest living male ancestor. Clan government is simply enlarged family government, since it rests wholly on kinship.

The Tribe.-Tribal government usually includes larger groups of men than family or clan government, and the members of the tribe are not always closely related. Yet the tribe is founded on belief in kinship. New members are often adopted into the tribe like children into a family. In any case the tribe is, with few exceptions, composed of people of the same race, and the stranger and alien in race and language is not often welcome. The Indian peoples of America and some of the wild peoples of the Philippines are examples of tribes. Tribal

government does not tend to develop a high civilization.

The Nation.-"Nation" is a term applied to social groups whose form of government does not necessarily depend upon relationship of blood. Usually the people of a nation are of the same race, but there are many exceptions, like the Swiss, who are a union. of Germans, Frenchmen, and Italians. A nation will usually receive the stranger of another race if he promises to obey the laws of the national government. The principal ties that bind men into nations are unity of race and language, common traditions and history, and similarity in customs, religion, and commercial interests.

A nation may spring from some or all of these causes. No two nations have ever arisen in just the same way. Wherever there is a sufficient number of ties, of whatever kind, to bind people together so that they feel a loyalty to each other and a desire to separate from other social groups we have the beginnings of a nation.

The State. The family, the tribe, and even the nation, are often merely social groups which exist with little or no government. The state, however, is a social group with a governmental organization. By the "state" we mean a society organized as a political body. Some nations exist in the form of states and some do not. The Jewish nation, for example, is scattered thru many countries. It has no governmental organization, nor distinct political life, but it has a unity of race, history, customs, and religion, that give it the right to be called a

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