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The revolution not effected without great sacrifices and sufferings on the part

of the Americans-Paper money issued-Depreciates-Taxes not called for

by congress until November, 1777-Paper money made a tender in payment of

debts-Prices of articles fixed by law-Congress attempt to call in the paper,

but without success-States neglect to comply with the requisitions-Con-

gress present an address to the states-Paper ceases to circulate in 1780-

Distresses of the Americans for want of funds-Apply to France for aid-

Special minister sent to the French court--King of France furnishes money

-Loans obtained in Holland--New arrangements in the civil departments--,

Sufferings of the army--General Washington's letters on this subject--Revolt

of the Pennsylvania line---Americans suffer from the burning of their towns--

Discontents among the officers of the army---Half pay recommended by gen-

eral Washington---Finally granted-Is unpopular in some of the states--Offi-

cers petition congress on this subject, and for a settlement of their accounts

---Congress delay acting on their memorial---This creates great uneasiness

among the officers---A meeting called by an anonymous notification to obtain

redress---Prevented by general Washington---Congress grant five years' full

pay in lieu of the half pay for life---News of peace arrives---Arrangements

made for disbanding the army---General Washington sends a circular letter to

the states---Definitive treaty of peace arrives---Army finally disbanded---Gen-

eral Washington addresses the army for the last time---Ťakes leaves of his

officers---Resigns his commission to congress,

After the peace of 1783, congress take measures to restore public credit-

Amount of the debt of the United States-States requested to vest congress

with power to levy duties on imposts, and to establish funds for the payment

of the interest of the debt-Address to the states on the subject-All the states

grant the impost, except New York-Congress propose to enter into commer-

cial treaties with most of the powers of Europe-Establish certain principles

respecting treaties--Appoint ministers to form commercial arrangements with

foreign nations-Pitt's bill respecting commercial intercourse with the United

States-Not approved by the new ministry and the navigating interest-Lord

Sheffield's observations upon it-King and council authorized to regulate the

commerce of the United States-Americans excluded from the West India

trade-Disputes with Great Britain about the inexecution of the treaty of

peace--Mr. Adams sent minister to England-His instructions-His reception

at the court of London-Presents a memorial to the British ministers-British

complain of infractions of the treaty on the part of the United States--Con-

gress recommend the repeal of all laws contrary to the treaty--Disputes with

Spain renewed about limits and the navigation of the Mississippi--Gardoqui,

minister from Spain, arrives--Mr. Jay appointed to negociate with him--His

instructions, and course of negociation with the Spanish minister--Cessions of

lands by the states-Territory of the United States formed into a district--Or-

dinance of congress for the government of the territory--Inefficiency of the

general government--Depressed state of American commerce-Insurrection in

Massachusetts--Alarms congress--Troops ordered to be raised to assist Massa-

chusetts-Meeting of commissioners from several states at Annapolis, to amend

the articles of confederation-General convention recommended by these com-

missioners and by congress-Delegates to this convention appointed by all the

states except Rhode Island,

* Inserted xvi. by mistake.


of the articles of confederation proposed by Mr. Patterson-Both debated-The

amendments of Mr. Patterson rejected---Large majority agree to form a new

system of government---To be divided into three great departments, legisla-

tive, executive and judicial-Legislative divided into two branches, house of

representatives and senate---Convention divided on the subject of the represent-

ation of the states in the senate-Sketch of the debate on this question---States

equally divided upon it---The subject referred to a large committee---Commit-

tee report a compromise between the large and small states---This finally

adopted by a majority of the convention---Sketch of the powers granted to

congress---General government prohibited from doing certain acts---The

powers of the states restricted---The organization of an executive attended

with great difficulty---Outlines of the first plan adopted by the convention---

This afterwards rejected and a new plan formed and eventually adopted---

Powers given to the executive---Judicial department to consist of a supreme

court and inferior courts---In what cases they have jurisdiction---Constitution

eventually different, in many respects, from what the members first con-

templated---Difference between the articles of confederation and the constitu-

tion-States divided on the subject of importing slaves, and on the subject of

the powers of congress, relative to navigation acts---These differences settled

by mutual concessions---General Washington's influence in the convention---

Constitution considered by state conventions---People greatly divided in some

of the states---Adopted by three states unanimously---By large majorities in

four states---Rhode Island refuses to call a convention---The other five states

much divided---Doubtful for a time whether they would ratify it without pre-

vious amendments---Massachusetts adopts it, and recommends certain amend-

ments---Convention of New Hampshire meet and adjourn---The system

strongly opposed in New York, Virginia and North Carolina, without previous

amendments---Is warmly debated in the conventions of those states---New

Hampshire follows the example of Massachusetts---Virginia and New York

adopt it in the same manner by small majorities---North Carolina refuses her

assent unless amended,


ed---Its powers and jurisdiction---Vessels of North Carolina and Rhode Island

placed on the same footing with those of the United States, until the 15th of

January, 1790---Congress direct the secretary of the treasury to report, at their

next session, a plan for the support of public credit---Request the president to

recommend the observance of a day of public thanksgiving and prayer---Ad-

journ to the first Monday of January, 1790---North Carolina adopts the con-

stitution in November---Speech of the president at the opening of the second

session of congress---He recommends the promotion of such manufactures,

as would render the United States independent on others for essential arti-

cles, the establishment of a good militia system, and adequate provision for

the support of public credit--- Financial plan of the secretary of the treas-

ury, submitted to the house in January-Outlines of this plan-Secretary

recommends funding the debt of the United States, and the assumption of the

state debts-This creates great divisions and long debates in congress-Motion

to discriminate between the original holders and the assignees of the domestic

debt negatived-Assumption of the state debts violently opposed-Debates

on this question-Finally carried-Terms of funding the debts-Commission-

ers appointed to settle the accounts between the states, and principles of set-

tlement adopted-Census of the inhabitants to be taken on the first Monday

of August, 1790-Third session commences the first Monday of December,

1790-Vermont and Kentucky admitted into the union-National bank es-

tablished-Strongly opposed as unconstitutional-Cabinet divided on the

question-President decides in favor of its constitutionality-Duties laid on

Spirits distilled within the United States-Opposed in congress, and in some

of the states-Speech of the president at the opening of the first session of the

second congress in October, 1791-Ratio of representation settled--Difference

between the houses and the president as to the constitutional rule of apportion-

ment-Gen. St. Clair and his army defeated by the Indians--Opposition to

the internal duties increases-The two great parties in the United States

more distinctly marked--Cabinet divided--An inquiry into the official conduct

of the secretary of the treasury, instituted in the house of representatives--

Charges exhibited against him-Negatived by a large majority-Supreme

court decides, that a state is liable to a suit in favor of individuals-An amend-

inent altering the constitution in this respect proposed and adopted-The

first term of president Washington's administration expires on the 4th of

March, 1793,


Political relations with Great Britain under the new government--The president

informally sounds the British government relative to the inexecution of the

treaty, and a commercial intercourse-Discriminating duties in the United

States claim the attention of the British ministry--Referred to the committee

of trade and plantations in September, 1789--Report of the committee on this

subject, and also with regard to the terms of a commercial treaty with the Uni-

ted States--West India trade not to be open to the Americans, nor the princi-

ple admitted that free ships should make free goods-English minister arrives

in the United States-Enters into discussion with the secretary of state on the

subject of the treaty-This discussion broken off, by the new state of things

in Europe--British orders of June 8th, 1793, relative to certain articles of pro-

visions destined to France--American government remonstrates against these

orders-Treaties between Great Britain and Russia, and other powers on this

subject--Similar orders issued by Russia and other nations in Europe--Reasons

given in justification of them-Answers of some of the European neutrals--

Algerine cruizers let loose upon American commerce in the Atlantic, in conse-

quence of a truce between Algiers and Portugal-This truce made by a British

agent-Many American vessels captured, and their crews made slaves--

Speech of the president at the opening of congress in December, 1793--Re-

port of the secretary of state concerning foreign restrictions on American com-

merce-Mr. Jefferson resigns--Mr. Madison's commercial resolutions--New

British orders respecting the West India trade--American vessels bound to the

West Indies taken and condemned-Congress divided as to the mode of resist-

ing these aggressions on neutral rights, and obtaining satisfaction and indem-

nity-Various plans proposed in the house of representatives-British estab-

lish a new military post at the rapids of the Miami of the lake--Mr. Jay nomi-

nated minister extraordinary to London-Reasons of the president for this

mission--Mr. Jay's instructions--Non-intercourse bill passed by the house,

but rejected in the senate--Congress take measures of defense--Lay additional

internal taxes--Pass acts to prevent the violation of the neutrality and sove-

reignty of the country---Fauchet arrives as successor to Genet---Has orders to

send Genet to France---Requests liberty of the president to take him by force

or stratagem---President refuses his request---Views of the French government

not changed---Mr. Morris recalled from France, and Mr. Munroe appointed

his successor--- His instructions,

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