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originally exposed to the influence of all southerly storms, so that vessels seeking its protection were compelled to anchor in the upper part where the channel was narrow and shoal, affording insufficient room for the ordinary commerce of the city. In this condition the harbor was of but little value as a harbor of refuge.

In 1879 a project was adopted for the construction of two breakwaters at the mouth of the harbor, the object being to afford a safe refuge for the general commerce of Long Island Sound and to secure at the same time a convenient anchorage for the shipping of the harbor.

The line adopted for the east break water, the one at present in process of construction, extends from Southwest Ledge, the location of the new light-house, to Quixe's Ledge in a northeast direction, a distance of 3,300 feet.

The entire amount appropriated for this work to the present date is $120,000, of which $59,706.15 had been expended June 30, 1881, in building 690 linear feet of breakwater.

Operations during the past fiscal year have consisted in the delivery of 49,500 tons of stone, building 535 feet additional length of breakwater at a cost of $59,571.51.

The total length now built is 1,225 feet, employing 113,892 tons of granite, at a total cost of $119,277.66.

It is proposed with future appropriations to continue this work, and these should be ample in order that the benefits to be derived may be secured as speedily as possible.

July 1, 1881, amount available

July 1, 1882, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1881.

July 1, 1882, amount available..

Amount appropriated by act passed August 2, 1882.

Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1883................

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project
Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30,
1884

(See Appendix C, 5.)

$60, 293 85

59,571 51

722 34 60,000 00

60, 722 34

1, 131, 134 00

300,000 00

6. Milford Harbor, Connecticut.-The outer harbor is a shallow bay on the north shore of Long Island Sound, about 9 miles west of New Haven, and is formed by the projecting headlands of Welch's Point and Charles' Island. It has good holding ground and is sheltered from the northerly winds, but exposed to those from the south. Two small tidal streams, the Wepawang and Indian rivers, unite and enter the bay at its head. In the Wepawang the tide flows up as far as the village of Milford, about half a mile from its mouth.

The channel of this stream was originally almost bare at low-water, and a sand bar obstructed the entrance below its outlet.

Plans for the improvement of this ha bor were adopted in 1872, contemplating the construction of jetties along Welch's Bluff to prevent erosion and washing of material into the harbor, a long jetty at the mouth of the river, and dredging to 4 feet depth through the shoal below the outlet and in the stream above. A breakwater off Welch's Point was also recommended to form an outer harbor of refuge, and to more perfectly protect the bluff from the action of the sea.

With the exception of the breakwater, the improvements under the original plan have been completed, and in addition the channel has been extended to the village wharves and a cutting 25 feet wide and 8 feet deep made at the entrance to the harbor.

Including the cost of the original survey, $34,500 has been appropriated for the improvement from 1871 to the present time. Of this sum, $34,423.81 had been expended June 30, 1881, resulting in the improvements described above.

No work was done during the past fiscal year, and no money was expended.

Those interested in the improvement now desire that the 8 feet entrance channel be widened to 100 feet, and that a basin of moderate size be excavated behind the long jetty to afford shelter for the small craft engaged at this place in the fish and oyster business.

To increase the channel to the width asked for would cost about $11,000. To excavate a basin 300 feet by 400 feet, and 7 feet deep at mean low-water, would cost about $14,000.

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20,000 00

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project........... Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1884.. 10,000 00 (See Appendix C 6.)

7. Housatonic River, Connecticut. This is a tidal river as far as the dam of the Ousatonic Water Company, 16 miles above its mouth, where are situated the manufacturing towns of Derby, Shelton, and Birmingham, their numerous mills being supplied with power by the river.

Navigation has been impeded by several bars at different points and by an extensive shoal at the entrance, having but 3 to 4 feet depth of water at low-tide.

The improvement of this river was begun in 1871, the object being to afford a navigable channel of 7 feet depth from its mouth to the head of tide-water. Nothing beyond a survey has yet been attempted at the entrance.

The entire amount appropriated for this river to the present date is $66,700, of which $64,647.40 had been expended June 30, 1881, in making and maintaining a channel 60 feet wide and 7 feet deep, the chief work in this direction being the removal of shoals. These shoals, due to the movement of sand during freshets, will frequently recur, and will require periodical appropriations for their removal.

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1882, the sum of $1,937.20 has been expended in dredging through shoals at Drew's Rock, and near the camp-meeting ground, about one mile below.

The project for increasing the depth of water at the entrance by means of a low jetty is suggested by the officer in charge and recommended by him as being a cheap and feasible method of obtaining a depth as great as that which obtains in the river generally. The estimated cost of this improvement is $20,000.

July 1, 1881, amount available..

$2,052 60

July 1, 1882, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1881..

1,937 20

July 1, 1882, amount available...

Amount appropriated by act passed August 2, 1882 ...

Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1883..

115 40 2,000 00

2, 115 40

Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1884. 5,000 00 (See Appendix C 7.)

8. Bridgeport Harbor, Connecticut.-The entrance to this harbor was originally obstructed by two shoals, known as the outer and inner bars. The channel was narrow, with a depth of but 5 feet on the outer bar, and from 4 to 6 feet on the inner bar, at mean low-water; above the channel was also narrow and shoal, allowing only the smaller class of vessels to reach the wharves, except during the highest stage of the tide.

Improvements were begun in 1836, and consisted in dredging a channel through the bars to secure a depth of 8 feet at mean low-water. With this end in view, several appropriations had been applied to the work, when, in 1871, the construction of a riprap jetty from the east shore was undertaken for the double purpose of arresting the movement of sand from the beach into the harbor and of strengthening the tidal currents over the bars. The effect of this jetty has been most favorable. The amount appropriated for the improvement of this harbor since. 1836 is $195,000, of which $184,915.89 had been expended June 30, 1881, chiefly in dredging, and had resulted in providing a channel 300 feet wide from Long Island Sound to the city wharves, and 12 feet deep at mean low-water, except through the outer bar, where the channel of this depth is but 200 feet wide, though the 11 and 9 foot channels are, respectively, 300 and 400 feet wide.

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1882, the work done has been above the inner beacon, in straightening the channel to the steamboat wharf and in widening the basin above the steel works. The amount removed was 90,000 cubic yards.

The project for the improvement of this harbor is now essentially completed, but the rapidly increasing demand for new anchorage area above the inner beacon, caused by the extensive use of the harbor for refuge, makes it evident that more width here is needed, and the appropriation of August 2, 1882, will be devoted to this end. To widen the harbor at this place so as to afford the room desired will require the excavation of 498,000 cubic yards of material, at an estimated cost of $60,000.

July 1, 1881, amount available....

July 1, 1882, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1881 ...

July 1, 1882, amount available...

Amount appropriated by act passed Angust 2, 1882

Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1883..

$10,084 11

9,723 37

360 74

10,000 00

10,360 74

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project..

50,000 00

Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1884. 30,000 00 (See Appendix C 8.)

9. Southport Harbor, Connecticut.-The navigation of this harbor, formerly known as Mill River, was almost impracticable, except at highwater; the channel, in places where obstructed by sand-bars, being nearly bare at low-water. The plan for improvement adopted in 1827 resulted in the construction of a breakwater from the sand-spit opposite Southport in a southerly direction, a dike extending northward in prolongation of the line of the breakwater, and the deepening of the channel through the bars by means of plowing and scraping.

The sum of $13,087.23 was expended under this plan, which secured a channel of moderate width and a depth of 2 feet at mean low-water. This was completed in 1837.

Since 1875 $15,000 has been appropriated for this improvement, and June 30, 1881, 812,488.58 of this amount had been expended in repairs on the breakwater and dike and in dredging a 4-foot channel, 60 feet

wide, from Long Island Sound to the south end of the breakwater, and 50 feet wide from that point to within 400 feet of the wharves.

During the past year, the width of the channel outside the breakwater was made 100 feet, the depth being 4 feet at mean low-water.

With the appropriation of August 2, 1882, it is proposed to extend the channel of 100 feet width to the village wharves, when the present project will have been completed.

July 1, 1881, amount available..

July 1, 1882, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1881.

July 1, 1882, amount available..

Amount appropriated by act passed August 2, 1882.

Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1883.. (See Appendix C 9.)

$2,511 42

2,355 57

155 85 3,000 00

3,155 85

10. Norwalk Harbor, Connecticut.-With the exception of a survey in 1829, the government had made no effort towards the improvement of this harbor previous to 1871. At the latter date navigation was obstructed at a number of places by deposits of mud, leaving a channel depth of from 1 to 2 feet at mean low-water. Immediately below the stone bridge at Norwalk a large middle ground of gravel mixed with bowlders had formed, bare at low-water and nearly filling the entire basin.

The plan of improvement adopted in 1871 proposed increasing the depth by dredging through the several shoals to a 6-foot depth at mean low-water, and making the width 100 feet from Long Island Sound to the village of Norwalk.

The sum of $64,246.66 has been appropriated for the improvement of this harbor, of which $1,246.66 was expended in surveys, and $57,975.47 had been expended June 30, 1881, in carrying out this project, which had resulted in obtaining a channel depth of not less than 6 feet at mean low-water, with a width of 60 to 100 feet, and in the entire removal of the middle ground at Norwalk.

Below the railroad bridge, at South Norwalk, the width has been made at least 100 feet, and the depth 8 feet at mean low-water.

During the past fiscal year $4,714.34 was expended in dredging, 26,159 cubic yards of material having been removed and deposited in Long Island Sound, widening the channel at three of the bends, and restoring it where it had partially filled. With future appropriations it is proposed to continue the improvement upon the plan now in progress. It is probable that periodical appropriations will be needed to keep this river in navigable condition, since the banks, being of soft marsh, are easily disturbed by the action of the currents and readily supply the necessary material for the formation of bars.

July 1, 1881, amount available

$5,024 53

July 1, 1882, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1881.....

4,714 34

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15,000 00

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project....

Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1884. 15,000 00 (See Appendix C 10.)

11. Port Jefferson Harbor, New York.-Port Jefferson Harbor is a

land-locked bay on the north shore of Long Island, about 45 miles by water from New York City. It has an area available for anchorage of 13 square miles with a depth of from 15 to 30 feet, and is finely situated for a harbor of refuge. It is separated from Long Island Sound by two rather narrow sand and gravel beaches, between which is an entrance which had originally no more than 4 feet depth at mean low-water.

The first appropriation for the improvement of the harbor was made in 1871, and was expended in accordance with a project for building a breakwater east of the entrance to check the motion of sand into the channel, and for dredging a 7-foot channel through the bar at the entrance.

In 1875 it was found desirable to enlarge this project, so as to include the building of a west breakwater, and in 1877 it was again modified by increasing the proposed depth to 8 feet at mean low-water.

The total amount appropriated for this harbor to the present time is $72,200, of which $67,910.26 had been expended June 30, 1881, in dredg ing an 8-foot channel 100 feet wide, and in the partial construction of both jetties.

Operations during the past year have consisted in the construction of 120 feet additional length of east jetty at an expenditure of $3,868.43. The amount required for the completion of the project is estimated at $8,000, and was appropriated by the act of August 2, 1882.

July 1, 1881, amount available.

July 1, 1882, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1881

$4,289 74

July 1, 1882, amount available...

Amount appropriated by act passed August 2, 1882

Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1883

3,868 43

421 31 8,000 00

8,421 31

(See Appendix C 11.)

EXAMINATIONS AND SURVEYS FOR IMPROVEMENT.

To comply with provisions of the river and harbor act of March 3, 1881, Major Barlow was charged with and completed the following, the results of which were transmitted to Congress, and printed as Senate Ex. Doc. 84, Forty-seventh Congress, first session:

1. Harbors of Madison and Clinton, Connecticut. (See Appendix C 12.)

2. For breakwater and harbor of refuge at Milford, Connecticut. (See Appendix C 13.)

3. Greenport Harbor, New York. (See Appendix C 14.)

4. Harbor of Mamaroneck, New York. (See Appendix C 15.) IMPROVEMENT OF HUDSON RIVER-REMOVAL OF OBSTRUCTIONS IN EAST RIVER AND HELL GATE-IMPROVEMENT OF BUTTERMILK CHANNEL, NEW YORK HARBOR; OF FLUSHING, CANARSIE, SHEEPSHEAD, AND GOWANUS BAYS AND SUMPAWAUMUS INLET; OF HARLEM RIVER, NEWTOWN AND EAST CHESTER CREEKS; THE HARBORS OF RONDOUT, ECHO, PORT CHESTER, AND NEW ROCHELLE, NEW YORK, AND OF RARITAN AND SOUTH RIVERS AND CHEESEQUAKES CREEK, NEW JERSEY. Officer in charge, Col. John Newton, Corps of Engineers, with Lieut. G. McC. Derby, Corps of Engineers, under his immediate orders.

1. Hudson River, New York.-The original condition of the navigable channel gave between New Baltimore and Barren Island a depth at

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