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to 12 feet at mean low-water; $23,000 was then expended at this place in dredging to a depth of 12 feet and width of 200 feet, and $2,000 in removing a wreck from Sabin's Point.

The next project was to increase the depth at the "Crook" to 14 feet at mean low-water. For this purpose an appropriation of $5,000 was used in 1870, making a channel having that depth for a least width of 130 feet.

In 1872 an appropriation of $10,000 was made, which was all expended in widening the channel-way of 12 feet depth at the "Crook."

In 1873 an appropriation of $10,000 was made to cut off the "Point of Long Bed," which projected into the channel from the east side, just below "Sassafras Point Light." With this the worst of the point was removed.

The removal of Bulkhead Rock, in Providence River, was begun in 1870, and $2,500 was then expended in increasing the depth on it from about 8 feet to about 14 feet at mean low-water.

The foregoing expenditures amounted in the aggregate to $59,000, and had all been directed toward improving the navigation for coasting vessels.

In 1878 a project was adopted having in view the excavation of a capacious channel, suitable for large ocean steamers, and a much enlarged width for coasters. It is designed to secure a central depth of 23 feet at mean low-water for a width of 150 feet, a depth of 12 feet for a width of 940 feet, and a depth of 6 feet for a width of 1,060 feet. The depths are to increase gradually from the shoalest to the deepest water. The cost was estimated at $500,000.

The work was begun in 1878 under an appropriation of $50,000 for dredging and $5,000 for increasing the depth on Bulkhead Rock. The dredging was begun, under contract, that year and abandoned by the contractor. In 1879 an additional appropriation of $60,000 was made. Up to June 30, 1880, there had been expended $61,757.79. By this expenditure the channel was made 23 feet deep for a width of 70 feet through the Pawtuxet shoal-not wide enough to be of practical value. A channel 20 feet deep and 200 feet wide was made through the shoals above Field's Point, which was immediately available. It was reserved till later to make the 23-foot channel depth above Field's Point.

The amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1881, including the removal of Bulkhead Rock so as to give a depth over it of 20 feet at mean low-water, was $79,072.69. In this time the 23-foot lowwater channel through the Pawtuxet Shoal was increased to a width of 200 feet, and the 20-foot channel through the shoals above Field's Point to a width of about 450 feet. The city of Providence can now be reached at high-tides by vessels drawing about 25 feet.

An additional appropriation was made in 1881 of $60,000, so that the balance on hand June 30, 1881, was $85,412.58. This has been expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1882, in increasing the width of channel 12 and 14 feet at mean low-water in accordance with the plan adopted and approved.

Under date of March 17, 1882, the Senate passed a resolution calling on the Secretary of War for estimates of the cost of increasing the depth of the main ship-channel of Providence River and Harbor to 25 feet at mean low-water for a width of 300 feet, and also what portion of the estimated cost of said improvement could be expended to advantage during the next fiscal year. The engineer in charge reported the additional cost, over and above the already adopted project, as $175,000. To complete the adopted project required $270,000, making the amount

necessary to complete the entire improvement $445,000, of which amount it was thought $200,000 could be judiciously expended in one year.

The act of August 2, 1882, appropriates $125,000, which will be expended during the year ending June 30, 1883, in making a channel 25 feet deep at mean low-water as far as the available money will pay for. July 1, 1881, amount available...

July 1, 1882, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1881..

July 1, 1882, amount available..

Amount appropriated by act passed August 2, 1882....

Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1883..

$85,412 58

81,948 09

3,464 49 125,000 00

128, 464 49.

320,000 00

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.... Amount that can be profitably oxpended in fiscal year ending June 30. 1884. 200, 000 00 (See Appendix B 7.)

8. Potowomut River, Rhode Island.-This river is a small estuary of Narragansett Bay, situated about 13 miles from Newport. In the original condition of the channel only 2.6 feet of water at mean lowwater could be taken into the river, because of a bar that extended across the mouth of the channel.

The originally adopted project for improvement provided for a channel 150 feet wide and 5 feet deep at mean low-water across this bar, and the removal of a clump of rocks known as Euston's Rocks. estimated cost of the whole improvement was $5,587.50.

The

Up to June 30, 1881, there had been expended $48.99. There was no change in the condition of the channel at this time.

During the year ending June 30, 1882, there was expended $4,951.01. The expenditure of this amount secured a channel 115 feet wide and 5 feet deep at mean low-water across the bar at the mouth of the river. Euston's Rocks were also removed; and several sharp points in the channel above the mouth of the river were dredged.

No further appropriation is asked for this work. Although the full width of channel (150 feet) across the bar at the mouth of the river was not secured, the width obtained (115 feet) is deemed sufficient for the present wants of this place.

July 1, 1881, amount available..

July 1, 1882, amount expended during fiscal year exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1881

(See Appendix B 8.)

$4, 951 01

4, 951 01

9. Newport Harbor, Rhode Island.—This harbor is on the main entrance to Narragansett Bay, which is defended by Fort Adams. It is one of the most important harbors on the coast, furnishing a safe roadstead and anchorage for all classes of vessels. Newport itself is upon an inner harbor admitting the largest vessels, but its capacity is limited by shoals, so that it is no longer adequate for the convenience of the greatly increasing number of vessels seeking it.

Prior to 1872 the general business wharves of the city did not admit of the approach of vessels at low-tide of greater draught than 8 feet. The mean rise of the tide is about 33 feet.

The first projected improvement was to increase the depth of the approaches to the harbor-line for wharves to 12 feet at mean low-water, and to prevent the sand from being brought in around the south end of Goat Island. It was prepared to comply with requirement of the river and harbor act of June 10, 1872. The project, with some modifications, was completed in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876. The amount

appropriated and expended up to that time was $28,500. The results obtained were satisfactory, and the work remains in good condition.

In December, 1880, another project was estimated for, under resolution of the House of Representatives, to increase the anchorage depth in the inner harbor down to 13 feet at mean low-water where hard material did not exist, to the extent of 327,000 cubic yards, at a cost of $72,000. For this purpose an appropriation was made in March, 1881, of $25,000. The work was commenced under contract in July, 1881, at the price of 11 cents per cubic yard. It was continued until December 17, 1881, when the contract was annulled by mutual consent, as the material to be excavated proved to be harder than the specifications contemplated.

A new contract was made (after publicly advertising) at the price of 19.9 cents per cubic yard, and the work at this date (June 30, 1882) is in progress.

The anchorage capacity of that part of the harbor between Commercial Wharf and Long Wharf has been increased about 16 acres, and in depth from 8 feet at mean low-water to from 11 to 13 feet.

The engineer in charge has revised his estimate for this improvement, increasing the amount for new requirements about 80,000 cubic yards, and the cost from 14 and 18 cents per cubic yard to 21 and 27 cents per cubic yard, because of the hardness of the material to be dredged and the enhanced prices.

First estimate for increase of anchorage...

$72,000

New estimate for increase of anchorage

New estimate for widening and deepening entrance South Goat Island

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July 1, 1881, amount available....

July 1, 1882, outstanding liabilities

July 1, 1882, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1881

$24,832 85

$16,302 35

489 45

16,791 80

July 1, 1882, amount available...

8,041 05

Amount appropriated by act passed August 2, 1882 ..

20,000 00

Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1883..........

28,041 05

87,000 00

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project

Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1884. 50,000 00 (See Appendix B 9.)

10. Block Island Harbor, Rhode Island.-This island is a part of the State of Rhode Island, and its nearest point is about 10 miles south of the mainland. It is about 14 miles east of Montauk Point, on Long Island, and has deep water all around it.

The "harbor" is an artificial one, built for local purposes by the United States, in the years 1870 to 1879 inclusive, at a cost of $285,000. It is on the east side of the island, towards the southern part, and is formed by a riprap jetty or breakwater, to intercept the waves from the eastward, and has an "inner harbor" or wharf next the inside shore end of the breakwater, forming a basin about 250 feet by 300 feet, which was originally dredged to a depth of 7 feet at mean low-water. This latter in active seasons of the year is crowded to its full capacity. The mean rise of the tide is about 3 feet.

Before this work was built no decked vessels could find harbor on the island in a storm, and none were owned there. The local business so increased that in February, 1880, an estimate was called for to increase the entrance to and depth inside the inner harbor to 9 feet at mean lowwater, to specially accommodate a small steamer belonging to the island. The act of June 14, 1880, appropriated $6,000 for this purpose and to remove a small wreck. The desired improvements were all completed during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1881, and included the removal of two large bowlders (then but recently discovered), within the sheltered area. The small balance on hand is reserved for contingencies.

This work may be considered as permanent (except that of the inner harbor, which is a timber crib-work), but it is probable that with the growth of commerce frequent extensions will be required. Its capacity is now hardly equal to the local wants. Besides the wants of the mackerel-fishing fleet and the general coast navigation, the island is an important point on our shores for ocean navigation. It has a signal station connected by submarine telegraph with the mainland. Vessels are passing the island at all times and on all sides of it, and its position renders it of national importance.

No work has been done here during the past fiscal year. In compliance with Senate resolution of December 14, 1881, an estimate of $19,000 was submitted to Congress for replacing the crib-work on the east side of the basin for protection of the cliffs, to preserve the area sheltered by the break water, and for patching the government wharf. The appropriation of $19,000 by act of August 2, 1882, will be expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1883, in making these repairs and the cliff protection.

An appropriation of $35,000 could be expended in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1884, in extending the main breakwater to give increased shelter.

July 1, 1881, amount available

July 1, 1882, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1881.

Amount appropriated by act passed August 2, 1882 ..

July 1, 1882, amount available

Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1883.....

$126 26

61 12

65 14

19,000 00

19,065 14

35, 000 00

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.............

Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1884.. 35,000 00 (See Appendix B 10.)

11. Little Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island and Connecticut.-Little Narragansett Bay is at the mouth of the Pawcatuck River, and lies between Stonington and Watch Hill. The navigable draught of water before any improvements were made was 4 feet at mean low-water.

The Pawcatuck River, which has been improved by the United States up to Westerly, and has now a channel 75 feet wide and 5 feet deep at mean low-water, can only be approached through this bay.

The original project for improving the bay, adopted in 1878, provides for a channel across the bay 200 feet wide and 73 feet deep at mean lowwater; also, for the removal of some rocks.

The amount expended up to June 30, 1881, was $20,288.71. The work accomplished had made a channel through the hard material at the east end 185 feet wide, and through the rest of the channel 60 feet wide. The channel was as yet in part too narrow to be of much use to navigation. The width of channel was increased from 60 to 140 feet.

The rocks off the east entrance of the new channel, and the worst of those at the entrance to the inside landing at Watch Hill, were removed.

Work during the ensuing year, under the appropriation of $6,000 made by act of August 2, 1882, will be in continuance of the improvement under plans already adopted and in progress.

Fifteen thousand dollars could be expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1884, in completing the projected improvement, making a channel 200 feet wide and 75 feet deep at mean low-water, and in removing the remaining rocks at the entrance to the inside landing of Watch Hill.

July 1, 1881, amount available..

July 1, 1882, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1881..........

$9,711 29

July 1, 1882, amount available

Amount appropriated by act passed August 2, 1882 .

Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1883 .............

9,433 41

277 88

6,000 00

6,277 88

15,000 00

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1884. 15,000 00 (See Appendix B 11.)

12. Connecticut River above Hartford, Connecticut, and below Holyoke, Massachusetts.-From Hartford to Windsor Locks at the foot of Enfield Falls, a distance of 103 miles, the river has a sedimentary bed and banks, and is naturally shoal at low-water, giving sometimes, where not improved, a depth of only 18 inches. Then Enfield Falls-a rock rapidextending 5 miles, prevents all navigation at the present time; but vessels drawing 3 feet can pass around them by means of the canal, having locks 80 feet by 18 feet. This canal is owned by a corporation charging toll, and is mainly used to furnish water-power. From the head of the "Falls" to Holyoke the navigation is good, having a lowwater depth of not less than 5 feet. There is seldom any useful tide from the ocean above Hartford.

A history of the improvement is given in full, in the Annual Report for 1878, Part I, pp. 247-393, up to that date. (Surveys and estimates were begun in 1870.) The final object to be reached has been a permanent improvement that would insure a low-water navigation throughout of at least 8 feet. In the mean time local wing-dams and dredging have been resorted to to relieve the part between Hartford and Enfield Falls, to secure 3 feet.

The part of the river above Hartford and below Holyoke is fully reported upon in Appendix B, Annual Report for 1878. Revised estimates were submitted January 3, 1881. These estimates provide for a canal 17.3 miles long from below Hartford to the head of the Enfield Falls, with locks 200 feet by 50 feet by 8 feet, at an estimated cost of $1,322,805. Something in addition will have to be added to make a low-water navigation of 8 feet up to Holyoke. No work has yet been done upon this main project.

Prior to June, 1880, the amount expended between Hartford and Holyoke for surveys and reports was about $32,000, and for works of improvement about $25,087.14. At points where local works of temporary relief had been done the results were satisfactory, but changes that have taken place left the river, at extreme low-water, in about the original unnavigable condition, and further temporary works have been planned at the Farmington River Shoals.

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