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DEFENSES OF CUMBERLAND SOUND-Continued.

washing away lately. The central jetty and the two jetties east of it are well covered up with sand on both sides and on top; the two westerly jetties have accumulated sand on their eastern sides, but none on the opposite side.

The high-water line has generally advanced seaward between the several jetties, but high spring tides still wash the foot of the seawall of the fort.

During the present fiscal year these jetties will be strengthened and extended to a length of about 300 feet, aud a new spur-jetty of that length will be built about 600 feet west of the most westerly spur. No appropriation having been made, no work was done at this fortification during the last fiscal year beyond its protection, preservation, and repair, as far as was possible with the general appropriation made for this purpose, and no other work is contemplated during the current fiscal year for the same reason.

Appropriation asked for next fiscal year..

DEFENSES OF SAINT AUGUSTINE.

$50,000 00

Fort Marion, Saint Augustine, Florida, in charge of Lieut. Col. Q. A Gillmore, Corps of Engineers.-This work is intended to defend the harbor and city of San Augustine. It was built by the Spaniards, and was called by them San Marco. It was essentially completed in the year 1756, its construction having extended through a period of more than one hundred years. It is built of coquina, a natural shell concrete found in the vicinity. No money has been expended by the United States for the maintenance of the work, or in arresting the progress of ordinary deterioration and decay, for the reason, doubtless, that the water battery constructed in front of it in 1842–43 will, if suitably armed, furnish a sufficient defense for this locality. The main work is not suitable for an efficient defense.

Should it be desired to restore old Fort San Marco, both main work and demilune, to the condition substantially in which it was left by the Spaniards, it can be done, so far as it is possible to attain this object, and omitting all preparations for an armament, for from $10,000 to $12,000.

No appropriation was made for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1883.
No appropriation asked for next fiscal year.

DEFENSES OF KEY WEST.

Fort Taylor and batteries, Key West, Florida, in charge of Capt. W. H. Heuer, Corps of Engineers.-These works, comprising the main casemated work on a submarine foundation and earthen batteries on the island, are for the defense of the important harbor of Key West. The main work was commenced in 1844.

The exterior earthen batteries for heavy guns, projected by the Board of Engineers for Fortifications, and commenced in 1872, were left incomplete at the close of the last fiscal year, for which an appropriation for this work was made (1875-276).

During the year, for want of any appropriations, no work was done to the fort proper or batteries.

The barracks and quarters within the fort are in bad order. To put them in good order will cost about $15,000.

The two Martello Towers are in fair condition. They were constructed in the early part of the war on private land, the title to which has never been acquired by the United States.

DEFENSES OF KEY WEST-Continued.

For certain necessary repairs to the main work and buildings, for continuing the construction of the exterior batteries for modern guns of large caliber, and for purchasing the land on which the Martello Towers stand, an appropriation is recommended.

No appropriation having been made, no work was done at this fortification during the last fiscal year beyond its protection, preservation, and repair, as far as was possible with the general appropriation made for this purpose, and no other work is contemplated during the current fiscal year for the same reason.

Appropriation asked for next fiscal year:

For repairs of buildings, and continuing the construction of the exterior batteries....

$67,000 00

For acquisition of sites of the two Martello Towers, by purchase or condemnation

DEFENSES OF THE HARBOR OF DRY TORTUGAS.

9,000 00

76,000 00

Fort Jefferson, Garden Key, Tortugas, Florida, in charge of Capt. W. H. Heuer, Corps of Engineers.-This casemated work, commenced in 1846, perfectly commands the admirable harbor lying in the heart of this group of keys.

During the past fiscal year operations were restricted to caring for the public property and buildings.

The modifications of this work, designed by the Board of Engineers for Fortifications, are in an incomplete condition. It is, however, desired to mount some heavier guns than those for which the work was originally planned, for use in case of emergency, and it is proposed to erect a few stone platforms for them. For this and some necessary repairs an estimate is submitted.

No appropriation having been made, no work was done at this fortification during the last fiscal year beyond its protection, preservation, and repair, as far as was possible with the general appropriation made for this purpose, and no other work is contemplated during the current fiscal year for the same reason.

Appropriation asked for next fiscal year.............

$28,000 00

DEFENSES OF PENSACOLA HARBOR AND NAVY-YARD. Fort Pickens, Pensacola Harbor, Florida, in charge of Capt. A. N. Damrell, Corps of Engineers.-This casemated work, commenced in 1828, with Fort Barrancas and the proposed new batteries near the site of Fort McRee, constitute the defenses of the town and harbor of Pensacola, and the navy-yard at Warrington. It is situated near the west end of Santa Rosa Island, and is, at present, the only work of defense to the entrance and main channel to Pensacola Harbor.

From 1869, when a new platform for a 15-inch gun in west bastion was completed, until 1873, operations were confined to general repairs. In December, 1873, operations were commenced to change the center pintle platforms into front pintle platforms for mounting new armament; after the completion of eight of these, work was suspended (in February, 1874) for want of funds, and operations were again confined to general repairs until January, 1876, when a kitchen and mess-hall were built, preparatory to commencing work on the modification of the fort, according to an approved plan of the Board of Engineers for Fortifications. Work on the bastions C and D was carried on until August, 1876, when, funds being again exhausted, operations had to be sus

DEFENSES OF PENSACOLA HARBOR AND NAVY-YARD.-Continued.

pended. With the exception of the gun-platform on bastion C, both bastions were completed.

The importance of this work, on account of its location, makes it desirable that the modifications to the fort and the construction of sand batteries, as recommended by the Board of Engineers for Fortifications, should be carried out at an early day; and an appropriation of seventyfive thousand dollars could be profitably expended on these works during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1884.

No appropriation having been made, no work was done at this fortificaduring the last fiscal year beyond its protection, preservation, and repair, as far as was possible with the general appropriation made for this purpose and no other work is contemplated during the current fiscal year for the same reason.

Appropriation asked for next fiscal year..

$75,000 00

Fort Barrancas and redoubt, Pensacola Harbor, Florida, in charge of Capt. A. N. Damrell, Corps of Engineers.-These works, commenced in 1839, are situated on the north bank of the entrance of Pensacola Harbor, opposite to Fort Pickens, and are intended for defense of this entrance and protection from land attacks.

For many years operations at this work were confined to necessary repairs to masonry, slopes, and wood-work, until 1874, when the construction of four front pintle platforms for mounting new ordnance was commenced; but work was suspended before much progress was made, none of the platforms having been completed. Since that time operations have again been confined to ordinary repairs. Portions of the fencing around the fort and redoubt have been rebuilt during the past fiscal year.

Plans and estimates for the construction of an exterior battery on the bluff west of the fort have been prepared by the Board of Engineers for Fortifications, but so far no appropriations have been made and no work has been done.

No appropriation having been made, no work was done at this fortification during the last fiscal year beyond its protection, preservation, and repair, as far as was possible with the general appropriation made for this purpose, and no other work is contemplated during the current fiscal year for the same reason.

Appropriation asked for next fiscal year..

$50,000 00

Fort McRee, Pensacola Harbor, Florida, in charge of Capt. A. N. Damrell, Corps of Engineers.-This fort, situated on the west side of the main ship-channel to Pensacola Harbor, commenced in 1836, has been a ruin since the late war; and the greater portion has been washed away by the encroachment of the sea upon its site.

Plans for the construction of batteries for the heaviest modern guns and mortars near the site of the old fort, to co-operate with Fort Pickens and the works at Barrancas in the defense of this important harbor, have been prepared by the Board of Engineers for Fortifications, but as no appropriation has been made for them no work was done upon them. Under an appropriation for the improvement of the harbor of Pensacola a substantial jetty is under construction in front of this fort, which to a great extent will protect its site.

No appropriation having been made, no work was done at this fortification during the last fiscal year beyond its protection, preservation, and repair, as far as was possible with the general appropriation made for this purpose, and no other work is contemplated during the current fiscal year for the same reason.

Appropriation asked for next fiscal year..

$50,000 00

DEFENSES OF MOBILE.

Fort Morgan, eastern entrance to Mobile Bay, Alabama, in charge of Capt. A. N. Damrell, Corps of Engineers.-This casemated fort, commenced in 1819 and completed in 1833, is situated at Mobile Point, on the east side of the main ship-channel to Mobile Bay, and as it commands this channel from the outer bar to the lower anchorage, and forms with Fort Gaines on the west side of the channel the outer line of defenses to the harbor and port of Mobile, its site is of great importance, but will not be of much value as a defensive work until the contemplated water batteries for heavy ordnance, along the western and southern shore, are completed. As stated in last year's report, the construction of these batteries was commenced in September, 1875; but work had to be suspended in April, 1876, the amount appropriated being exhausted; and as no appropriations have been made since, this work has not been resumed.

During the winter of 1873-74, twelve of the old barbette gun-platforms on the channel front of the fort were changed for 200-pound Parrott gun-platforms; and the guns mounted on these are the only guns now serviceable. The sea-wall, completed to a distance of 1,300 feet south of the wharf, in 1878, for the protection of the site of the fort, was badly injured by the heavy storms in December, 1879, by being partially undermined near its southern end; and a brush apron, with stone ballast, was put in front of that section of the wall.

After a heavy gale during February, 1881, it was found that the water almost along the entire length of the wall had deepened to such an extent as to threaten its destruction by undermining, and during the fiscal year 1880-'81 an apron, constructed of brush mattresses sunk with rock ballast, was put in front of the wall at points where the greatest wash had taken place.

An allotment of $5,570 was made from the general appropriation for preservation and repair of fortifications, for the extension and completion of the brush and stone revetment in front of the sea-wall for the protection of the site of the fort, and this work was carried on during the months of April, May, and June, 1882, but on account of the scarcity of suitable ballast, operations had to be suspended before the revetment could be carried along the whole length of the sea-wall; about 400 feet remain to be completed. One thousand nine hundred and eighteen tons of ballast and about 350 cords of brush were expended, new fender piles were driven at the head of the wharf, and some repairs made to the main drain from the fort.

With the exception of the above work, operations during the year were confined to preservation and repairs of buildings and wharf, and the care of public property.

No appropriation having been made, no work was done at this fortification during the last fiscal year beyond its protection, preservation, and repair, as far as was possible with the general appropriation made for this purpose, and no other work is contemplated during the current fiscal year for the same reason.

Appropriation asked for next fiscal year....

$75,000 00

Fort Gaines, Dauphin Island, Alabama, in charge of Capt. A. N. Damrell, Corps of Engineers.-This work, commenced in 1848, is, with Fort Morgan, on the opposite side of the main entrance to Mobile Harbor, designed to command that entrance and the lower fleet-anchorage. It needs complete modification to adapt it to the use of modern heavy guns, ard plans therefor have been prepared by the Board of Engineers for

DEFENSES OF MOBILE-Continued.

Fortifications; but no appropriations having been made for this work, the fort remains in the condition as reported last year.

The palmetto jetties erected for the protection of the site of this fort from abrasion by the sea have been very much damaged by floating logs during the past year, and the officer in charge designs to submit a plan for a more permanent protection as soon as necessary surveys can be made.

No appropriation having been made, no work was done at this fortification during the last fiscal year beyond its protection, preservation, and repair, as far as was possible with the general appropriation made for this purpose, and no other work is contemplated during the current fiscal year for the same reason.

Appropriation asked for next fiscal year...

DEFENSES OF MISSISSIPPI SOUND.

$50,000 00

Fort on Ship Island, in charge of Capt. A. N. Damrell, Corps of Engineers.-This casemated fort, commenced in 1862, is located at the west end of Ship Island, on the east side of Ship Island channel, and is designed for the defense of a maritime depot of coal, provisions, &c.; of the navigation of Mississippi Sound, and of the approaches to New Orleans from the eastward.

Operations up to the present fiscal year consisted in ordinary repairs to the fort and buildings, and care and preservation of public property. During heavy southeasterly gales in the months of September and October the sea encroached upon the beach around this fort to such an extent that 14 feet of water was found all along the southern and western exposure of the fort. A report of this fact having been made, an allotment of $5,584 from the appropriation for preservation and repair of fortifications was made for the construction of three jetties for the protection of the fort, and work was commenced in April, 1882, and continued to the close of the fiscal year. The three proposed jetties were completed to 220 feet, 152 feet, and 218 feet, respectively, and in addition a plank bulkhead, 714 feet long, was constructed along the beach east of the fort, to prevent the sea from washing across the island at that point. The effect of the jetties has so far been entirely satisfactory, but in order to prevent further encroachment by the sea either to the eastward or westward of the fort, the construction of two additional jetties has been recommended by the officer in charge. The jetties were built with heavy rock ballast, laid on brush mattresses, with a height varying from 3 to 5 feet; 483 cords of brush and 1,439 tons of rock ballast were expended in their construction.

No appropriation was made for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1883.
No appropriation asked for next fiscal year.

DEFENSES OF NEW ORLEANS.

Fort Pike, Rigolets Pass, Louisiana, in charge of Maj. C. W. Howell, Corps of Engineers, until December 1, 1881; since that date in charge of Maj. Amos Stickney, Corps of Engineers.-This casemated work, commenced in 1819, is located on the south side of the Rigolets, a pass connecting Lake Pontchartrain with Mississippi Sound and the Gulf of Mexico. It was designed to guard the extreme eastern approach to New Orleans available for vessels drawing seven feet or less.

During the late civil war, while in the possession of the Confederates,

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