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DEFENSES OF NEW BEDFORD-Continued.

pleted by the Board of Engineers for Fortifications, and work can be begun as soon as money is appropriated.

No appropriation having been made, no work was done at this fortification during the last fiscal year beyond its protection, preservation, and repair, as far as was possible with the general appropriation made for this purpose, and no other work is contemplated during the current fiscal year for the same reason.

Appropriation asked for next fiscal year....

DEFENSES OF NARRAGANSETT BAY.

$30,000 v0

Fort Adams, Newport Harbor, Rhode Island, in charge of Lieut. Col· G. K. Warren, Corps of Engineers.-This large and important work, commenced in 1824, defends the harbor and city of Newport, and commands the principal passage to Narragansett Bay, one of the best roadsteads on the coast.

The preparatory work for the construction of the new exterior earthen battery for modern ordnance (such as opening roads, draining the grounds, &c.) having been all completed, rapid progress can be made in construction when the necessary funds are appropriated. This important battery at the end of the fiscal year 1875-76 had but recently been commenced, in accordance with plans approved by the Secretary of War, and no work has been done since that year for want of appropriations.

An allotment of $10,000 was made to this work from the appropriation for protection, preservation, and repair of fortifications approved March 3, 1881, for repair of the permanent wharf. With this, the west wall, with the exception of 25 feet near the head, has been entirely rebuilt. In doing this the slatestone used in the backing of the old wall was discarded, and granite only was used. About one hundred headers, weighing from two to five tons, were purchased and used in the wall. The length of wall rebuilt was 370 feet.

The head of the pier which forms the east side of the basin which had never been finished was built up to above high-water.

The covering of casemate quarters with concrete, commenced last year as an experiment, having proved very satisfactory in keeping the water out, and having withstood the winter's frosts, was continued this season. With the $1,000 allotted, the casemates on the east front were covered and leaks on the north front stopped. The bridges leading from the parade to the upper casemate battery on the west front have been rebuilt, and some needed repairs have been made to the Engineer buildings.

No appropriation having been made, no work was done at this fortification during the last fiscal year beyond its protection, preservation, and repair, as far as was possible with the general appropriation made for this purpose, and no other work is contemplated during the current fiscal year for the same reason.

Appropriation asked for next fiscal year

$40,000 00

Defenses of Dutch Island, western entrance to Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, in charge of Lieut. Col. G. K. Warren, Corps of Engineers.-These earthworks, commenced in 1863, command the western passages to Narragansett Bay.

The appropriation asked is for continuing the construction of barbette

DEFENSES OF NARRAGANSETT BAY-Continued.

earthen batteries for modern ordnance, in accordance with plans approved by the Secretary of War.

No appropriation having been made, no work was done at this fortification during the last fiscal year beyond its protection, preservation, and repair, as far as was possible with the general appropriation made for this purpose, and no other work is contemplated during the current fiscal year for the same reason.

Appropriation asked for next fiscal year..

$30,000 00

DEFENSES OF NEW LONDON HARBOR AND NAVY-YARD.

Fort Trumbull, New London Harbor, Connecticut, in charge of Maj. J. W. Barlow, Corps of Engineers.-This fort, commenced in 1838, is located on "Fort Point," a promontory on the west side of the Thames River, about 2 miles above Long Island Sound. With Battery Griswold, on the opposite side of the river, it was intended to protect the city of New London from attack and the harbor from invasion and occupation by a hostile fleet.

This fort, built from 1838 to 1848, when completed consisted of a granite casemated work, with brick arches and two exterior batteries. In 1874 the Board of Engineers for Fortifications submitted a plan for rebuilding both exterior batteries. Under two appropriations made for the purpose the north exterior battery was rebuilt in accordance with the plans, and is now completed, except the placing of the traverse iron and pintles for the guns; these are in hand and could be put in place in a very short time. It was proposed to rebuild the south battery under plans submitted at the same time, but no money for the purpose has since been available.

In case of a foreign war it would be of the utmost importance that the harbor of New London should be securely protected. Its occupation by an enemy would give him practical control of Long Island Sound, with facilities for landing and embarking troops, and a fleet once fairly in possession could be dislodged with great difficulty. At the time the fort was built it was undoubtedly sufficient to prevent such occupation;. in the present state of the defenses the capture of this harbor would be an easy matter.

With an allotment from the general appropriation for the preservation and repair of fortifications, the latrines and sewers in the main work, which had become clogged and foul in such a way as to be offensive and to endanger the health of the post, were thoroughly cleaned out; the opportunity was taken to make careful measurements and drawings of the latrines. Slight repairs have also been made upon the slopes and sea-walls.

The recommendation heretofore made that $40,000 be appropriated for the construction of the south exterior battery, in accordance with plans already approved, is renewed for the next fiscal year.

No appropriation having been made, no work was done at this fortification during the last fiscal year beyond its protection, preservation, and repair, as far as was possible with the general appropriation made for this purpose, and no other work is contemplated during the current fiscal year for the same reason.

Appropriation asked for next fiscal year

$40,000 00

Fort Griswold, New London Harbor, Connecticut, in charge of Maj. J. W. Barlow, Corps of Engineers.-This fort is on the east side of the Thames River, opposite and above Fort Trumbull, and with it commands New

DEFENSES OF NEW LONDON HARBOR AND NAVY-YARD-Continued.

London Harbor. It is a barbette earthwork battery, commenced in 1840. The site is an important one, directly opposite the city of New London, and from its elevation, 80 feet above tide-water, overlooks every part of the harbor.

In 1874 plans for modifying the defenses of New London Harbor were submitted and approved. These include the rebuilding of this battery in order to prepare it to receive eight of the heaviest modern guns mounted in double position. So modified, it would be a very effective defense to the harbor.

The sum of $25,000 is asked for with which to begin the work. With the exception of slight repairs to the magazine door, no work was done at this fort during the last fiscal year.

No appropriation having been made, no work was done at this fortifica-
tion during the last fiscal year beyond its protection, preservation, and
repair, as far as was possible with the general appropriation made for
this purpose, and no other work is contemplated during the current
fiscal year for the same reason.
Appropriation asked for next fiscal year

DEFENSES OF NEW HAVEN.

$25,000.00

Fort Hale, New Haven Harbor, Connecticut, in charge of Maj. J.W. Barlow, Corps of Engineers.-This is a temporary structure, built near the close of the late war, mainly of earth. The nature of the work is such that it cannot be converted into a permanent one to advantage without rebuilding. It is the only defense of New Haven Harbor, and occupies an important position, a prominent point on the east shore, about two miles below the city. It would not be desirable to expend any large sum of money in repairs of the old work, but the advantages of the position for permanent fortification should not be overlooked.

The proper protection of New Haven Harbor would demand additional works of defense on Five-Mile Point, in the vicinity of the old light-house tower, to prevent a hostile fleet anchoring in the mouth of the harbor.

New Haven is a city whose commercial importance warrants the erection of some system of permanent harbor defense.

No appropriation was made for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1833.
No appropriation asked for next fiscal year.

DEFENSES OF NEW YORK AND THE NAVY-YARD AT BROOKLYN.

Fort Schuyler, East River, New York, in charge of Lieut. Col. H. L. Abbot, Corps of Engineers.-This is an important work for the defense of the entrance to the harbor of New York City through the East River. It was commenced in 1833.

No progress has been made during the year, the available funds hav ing been only sufficient to care for the public property, to remove an old Engineer building, formerly used as a store-house, and to make necessary repairs to a building formerly used as a boarding-house for the Engineer employés. Two small out-buildings connected with the boarding-house, one of brick, used as a meat-house, and the other used as a bake-house, have also been removed, the latter by the garrison.

The condition of the several batteries, &c, remains the same as stated in the annual report of last year, since which time no change has occurred, except the gradual deterioration consequent upon exposing un

DEFENSES OF NEW YORK AND THE NAVY-YARD AT BROOKLYN-Continued.

finished work to the action of the weather. The completion of the barbette tier of the main work is greatly to be desired to check this progress and to put the fort into a condition to receive its new armament promptly in case of war. The completion of the parados of the 10-gun earthen battery—a work requiring time-for a like reason should not be delayed. The necessity of immediately resuming work at this place is sufficiently set forth in the remarks upon the fort on Willets Point, which co-operates with Fort Schuyler in the defense of the East River entrance of New York Harbor.

The sum asked ($150,000) is urgently needed to complete the extension of the barbette tier of the main work and other modifications designed to give room for a modern armament, to repair the sea-wall, and to continue the parados of the 10-gun earthen battery as far as the funds will permit.

Time is essential to this work, and if left until the breaking out of war the position could not be properly defended. The immense military importance of this site for the defense of New York City, and the present dilapidated and unfinished condition of the fortifications, has been often urged. The necessity for immediate action can hardly be stated in too strong language.

No appropriation having been made, no work was done at this fortification during the last fiscal year beyond its protection, preservation, and repair, as far as was possible with the general appropriation made for this purpose, and no other work is contemplated during the current fiscal year for the same reason.

Appropriation asked for next fiscal year.........

$50,000 00

Fort at Willets Point, eastern entrance to New York Harbor, in charge of Lieut. Col. H. L. Abbot, Corps of Engineers.-This fort, which was commenced in 1863, is designed, together with Fort Schuyler, to close the harbor of New York City against the approach from Long Island Sound. In former years the natural obstructions at Hell Gate; the location of the navy-yard and of the. great commercial interests near the southern end of Manhattan Island, and the limited range of artillery, all combined to make this channel of much less importance to the defense than that through the Narrows, and the armament and emplacements were accordingly planned on a smaller scale. The modern increase in range and power of artillery, the growth of the city toward the north, and the improvements at the Hell Gate Channel have thus done relatively more to uncover New York City on this side than on the other, and prompt attention is now demanded to prepare for even a respectable defense against any fleet likely to be used in attacking the city.

In the present state of the defenses the torpedo lines could not be properly protected, nor could the works needful for the purpose be constructed in haste. The site is contracted, and the concrete needful for gun-platforms cannot be subjected to heavy shocks when newly laid. It requires time to harden, and it cannot be laid in freezing weather. Time is absolutely essential to proper preparation. It will be a fatal mistake to suppose either that the work can be done promptly at the beginning of a war or that the channel can be effectively closed by torpedoes in the present state of the forts.

That the great commercial metropolis of the country should be left in a condition to invite attack from any third-rate power piratically inelined can only be explained by a wide-spread popular misapprehension

DEFENSES OF NEW YORK AND THE NAVY-YARD AT BROOKLYN-Continued.

of the actual condition of these defensive works and of the ease with which an armored fleet could lay the city under contribution.

Fortunately, much work has already been done upon the new earthworks planned since the war, and a moderate sum would add greatly to their present value. The principal part of the grading and sodding is done, and all but three of the traverse magazines are serviceable.

The stone fort, being in an unfinished condition, is gradually deteriorating from the exposure to the weather; and it is very desirable that the second tier arches should be turned and asphalted to protect the casemates, which, in an emergency, would be of much value to the defense. This is doubly important since the armament has been placed in position and requires to be kept covered with paulins, on account of the leakage upon them.

No progress has been made during the year in strengthening this fort, as the available funds have been only sufficient to keep the works in repair. The Engineer wharf, which was in a very decayed condition, has been thoroughly repaired; and necessary repairs have been made to the sea-wall, to temporary buildings, to inclined planes, tools and implements. The large storage magazine in rear of the northeast curtain of the stone fort has been whitewashed, and material for flooring it with concrete, 1 foot in thickness, has been purchased.

The torpedo casemate, shaft, and gallery are completed as planned by the Board of Engineers.

An appropriation is desired to continue the construction of the project as now approved, beginning with the completion of the earthen parapet, the gun emplacements, and the traverse magazines. A large appropriation is urgently needed to place the works in a condition to be of use in case of necessity.

No appropriation having been made, no work was done at this fortification during the last fiscal year beyond its protection, preservation, and repair, as far as was possible with the general appropriation made for this purpose, and no other work is contemplated during the current fiscal year for the same reason.

Appropriation asked for next fiscal year.

$80,000 00

Defenses of Governor's Island, New York Harbor, in charge of Col. Henry W. Benham, Corps of Engineers.-These works are Fort Columbus, Castle Williams, South Battery, and New Barbette Battery. They, with Fort Wood, on the opposite side of the channel, defend the entrances to the East River and the Hudson River. The fortifications on Governor's Island were commenced in 1831. The exterior heavy earthen batteries are as yet unfinished.

For years past no special appropriation has been made for any of the works on this island, and no operations therefore have been carried on during the past fiscal year.

For the replacing of decayed and worn-out parts of the bridge across the ditch of Fort Columbus, the material was furnished to the post quartermaster, there being no funds to pay for the work of repairs also. A portion of the exterior slope of the parapet of the fort, especially that of the southeast bastion, requires rebuilding and resodding; and the making of a road to the post hospital-running along the foot of the glacis and now in progress of construction-will necessitate the regrading of that part of the glacis at a small outlay.

The asphalted felting on the terreplein of Castle Williams appears to

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