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st directly or indirectly derive their supplies of food. other hand, however, the power possessed by the inha ts of the most densely peopled countries of adding ir numbers, undergoes no sensible change. The princi instinct, which impels man to propagate his species, has ared in all ages and countries so nearly the same, tha -y, in the language of mathematicians, be considered a stant quantity. However rapidly the means of subsiste we occasionally been increasing, population has seldom fai keep pace with them. Those who inquire into the p d present state of the world, will find that the populat all countries is generally accommodated to their me subsistence. When these are increased, population so increased, or is better provided for; and when they ninished, the population is either worse provided for, o Is off, or both.

We have seen that the population of the United Sta ubles itself in so short a period as twenty or five-a enty years. And if the supplies of food and other artic quired for the support of the people continue to increase st as they have done, population will most likely contin advance in the same proportion for a lengthened peri , it may be, until the space required to carry on the tions of industry becomes deficient. But the princi increase is quite as strong in Yorkshire, Holland, and N andy, as it is in Kentucky and Illinois, and yet it is plai possible that the population of England, the Netherlan id France, can be doubled in so short a period. While

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Americans have millions upon millions of acres of rich unoccupied land, over which to extend cultivation, we have not even a single acre in that predicament; and owing to the greater outlay upon the lands we are compelled to cultivate, and the greater weight of our tithes, poor-rates, and other taxes, the quantity of produce to be divided between the undertakers of work in England and their labourers is less than in America, so that both parties have a less power of providing for the wants of a family. A number of children is not here, as in the United States or Australia, a source of wealth. On the contrary, their maintenance occasions an expense, which the poor man, unless he be at once frugal and industrious, can with difficulty meet. The habits of the people have been moulded accordingly. There is a general feeling that it would be imprudent to enter into matrimonial connexions without having something like a reasonable prospect of being able to maintain the children that may be expected to spring from them. And marriages are, in consequence, very generally deferred to a later period than in America, and a greater proportion of our people find it expedient to pass their lives in a state of celibacy. And it is fortunate that this is the case; that their good sense, and their laudable desire to preserve their place in society, make them control their passions, and subject them to prudential considerations. Man cannot possibly increase beyond the means provided for his support. And were the tendency of population to increase in densely peopled countries, where the difficulty of providing supplies of food is comparatively great, not checked by the prevalence of moral restraint, or the forethought of the people, it would be checked by the prevalence of want, misery, and famine. There is no alternative. The population of every country has the power, supposing food to be adequately supplied, to go on doubling every five and twenty years. But as the limited extent, and limited fertility of the soil, render it impossible to go on producing food in this ratio, it necessarily follows, unless the passions are moderated, and a proportional check given to the

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sistence, but to exceed them; and the object of ssay on the Principles of Population," is to illustrate t ciple, by pointing out the pernicious consequences ing from a redundant population, improvident unions, a bringing of human beings into the world without be to provide for their subsistence and education. A ead of this doctrine being, as has been often stat avourable to human happiness, a material change for ter would undoubtedly be effected in the condition of socie e its justice generally acknowledged, and a vigorous eff de to give it a practical bearing and real influence. I dent, on the least reflection, that poverty is the source greater portion of the ills which afflict humanity; a re can be no manner of doubt, that a too great increase ulation, by occasioning a redundant supply of labour, cessive competition for employment, and low wages, is st efficient cause of poverty. It is now too late to cont at a crowded population is a sure sympton of national p rity. The population of the United States is not nearly nse as that of Ireland; but will any one say that they s flourishing and happy? The truth is, that the pr rity of a nation depends but little on.the number of its bitants, but much on their industry, their intelligence, eir command over necessaries and conveniences. The ea fords room only, with the existing means of production, certain number of human beings to be trained to any deg perfection. And "every real philanthropist would rat itness the existence of a thousand such beings, than tha

a million of millions of creatures, pressing against the limits of subsistence, burdensome to themselves, and contemptible to each other." Wherever the labouring classes continue to increase more rapidly than the fund which has to support and employ them, their wages are gradually reduced till they reach the lowest possible limit. When placed under such unfortunate circumstances, they are cut off from all expectation of rising in the world, or of improving their condition. Their exertions are neither inspired by hope nor by ambition. Unable to save, or to acquire a stake in society, they have no inducement to make any unusual exertions. They consequently become indolent and dispirited; and, if not pressed by hunger would be always idle.

It is thus apparent that the ratio which the progress of capital bears to the progress of population, is the pivot on which the comfort and well-being of the great bulk of society must always turn. If capital, as compared with population, be increased, the population will be better provided for; if it continue the same, the condition of the population will undergo no change; and if it be diminished, that condition will be changed for the worse.

The principles thus briefly elucidated render it apparent, on a little reflection, that the condition of the bulk of every people must usually depend much more on their own conduct than on that of their rulers. Not that we mean to insinuate that the influence of governments over their subjects is not great and powerful, or that the latter should not be governed in the best possible manner. A people who have the misfortune to be subjected to arbitrary and intolerant rulers, though otherwise possessed of all the powers and capacities necessary for the production of wealth, will, from the want of security and freedom, be most probably sunk in poverty and wretchedness. But wherever property is secure, industry free, and the public burdens moderate, the happiness or misery of the labouring classes depends almost wholly on themselves. Government has there done for them all that it

d to the increase or diminution of national capital, or the conduct of the mass of any people should be perbly influenced by public and remote considerations. The ies of philosophers, and the measures of statesmen and lators, have reference to the interests and well-being of ns; but those of ordinary men embrace a comparatively ow range. Their views seldom, indeed, extend even to lass to which they belong. They include only thems, their families, and near connexions; and they are fied if they succeed in promoting their interests, without ing or caring about those of others. Luckily, howthe two coincide. The industry, the frugality, and the hought, without which no individual can either hope to ove his condition if he have little or nothing, or to keep wn, and avoid falling a sacrifice to poverty, if he have ing,' are virtues indispensable to the well-being of indils, and consequently of the community. And it is so ed, that no sort of combination or co-operation is red to secure these advantages. They are realized in the t extent by every one by whom they are practised; and can be realized by none else.

is fortunate that those principles, a knowledge of which most importance to the interests of mankind, lie on the ce, and are easily understood, and may be practised by Every man, if he have any reflection, who proposes ing into a matrimonial engagement, must feel that he is t to undertake a serious responsibility. The wages or rces which may be able to support himself comfortably, be insufficient for the support of two, or three, or four


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